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green, adj. and n.1

Keywords:
Quotations:
Pronunciation: 
Brit. /ɡriːn/
U.S. /ɡrin/
Forms:  eOE groeni, OE groene (Northumbrian), OE–16 grene, lOE græne, lOE grane, ME greine, ME griene, ME grone, ME–15 grenne, ME–15 greyn, ME–15 greyne, ME–15 gryne, ME–16 greene, ME–16 gren, ME– green, 15 greane, 15 grenn, 15 grien, 16 creen (in representations of Welsh English), 18– grein (English regional (south-west midlands)), 18– grin (English regional (south-western)); Scottish pre-17 greene, pre-17 greine, pre-17 gren, pre-17 grene, pre-17 greyn, pre-17 greyne, pre-17 grien, pre-17 griene, pre-17 gryne, pre-17 17 grein, pre-17 17– green, 19– grøn (Shetland), 19– grün (Shetland). N.E.D. (1900) also records a form ME grenn. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use): 
Origin: A word inherited from Germanic.
Etymology: Cognate with Old Frisian grēne  , grēn   green, fresh, Middle Dutch groene  , groen  , grone  , grune   green, fresh, youthful, inexperienced, (of food) raw, untreated, also groene  , groen  , grone  , grune   (noun) green, greenness, greenery, verdure, grassy ground, vegetables, greens, green fabric (Dutch groen  ), Old Saxon grōni   green (Middle Low German grȫne   green, (as noun) green, greenness, greenery, verdure, grassy ground, fruit, vegetables, greens), Old High German gruoni  , gruone  , gruani  , cruone   green (as the colour of plants, some precious stones, the sea), fresh, healthy, (of food) raw, untreated, also gruonī   (noun) green, greenness, greenery, verdure, health, vigour (Middle High German grüene  , German grün  ), Old Icelandic grœnn   green (as the colour of verdure, etc.), fresh, hopeful, good, Old Swedish grön   green, fresh, new (Swedish grön  ), Old Danish grøn   green, fresh (Danish grøn  ), a derivative formation < the Germanic base of grow v.
As shown by the (selective) glosses given above, the associations with verdure, freshness, newness, health, and vitality are widespread among the Germanic languages. The developments shown by sense A. 3   show a quite different and somewhat contrary development, and probably result in large part ultimately from association with ancient Greek χλωρός   green, pale (see chloro- comb. form1) and with ancient and medieval medical traditions; compare classical Latin viridis   ‘green’ used of a ‘greenish’ complexion taken as a sign of illness or excess of bile.
 
Attested earlier in place names (in sense B. 3a), as Manegrena  , Norfolk, lit. ‘common green’ (1086; now Mangreen), le Spitelgrene  , North Riding, Yorkshire (12th cent.; now lost), etc.; also very common in surnames in this sense, as Geoffrey de Grene   (1188), Willelmus de la Grene   (1193), Galfridus Attegrene   (1206), Petr. Atte Grene de Griston   (c1311), Adam othe Grene   (1327), etc.
 
In sense B. 4b   after classical Latin prasinus, denoting this faction, use as noun of masculine of prasinus   leek-green (see prasine adj.); compare classical Latin prasina factiō ‘leek-green faction’.
 A. adj.
 I. With reference to colour.
 1. Of a colour intermediate between blue and yellow in the spectrum; of the colour of grass, foliage, an emerald, etc.Green light has a wavelength in the approx. range 500 to 575 nm.Frequently with prefixed nouns or adjectives denoting a particular shade. apple, bottle-, dark, emerald-, grape-, grass-, lettuce, olive-, pea-, sea-green: see the first element. See also sense B. 4a.
 

 a. Designating growing vegetation, grass, etc.

eOE   Cleopatra Gloss. in W. G. Stryker Lat.-Old Eng. Gloss. in MS Cotton Cleopatra A.III (Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ.) (1951) 85   Carpassinum, grene gærs.
OE   Genesis A (1931) 1137   [Sethes] eafora se yldesta wæs Enos haten; se nemde God niðþa bearna ærest ealra, siððan Adam stop on grene græs gaste geweorðad.
c1275  (?c1250)    Owl & Nightingale (Calig.) (1935) l. 617   Ich habbe at wude tron wel grete..Mid iui grene al bigrowe.
a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 2775   Ðo sag moyses at munt synay..Fier brennen on ðe grene leaf.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) v. l. 1829   Lich to the Tree with leves grene, Upon the which no fruit is sene.
a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 1256   Þat gresse..euer has siþen ben gren.
?a1450   Agnus Castus (Stockh.) (1950) 131 (MED)   Þis herbe haȝt lytyl lewys, abowyn grene and benethyn qwyȝt.
c1480  (a1400)    St. Peter l. 563 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) I. 23   He..crownyt hym-self with lauream gren.
a1500   in Englische Studien (1897) 23 445   Gras ys grenner þan ys þe wode.
1567   G. Turberville Epitaphes, Epigrams 143   Rent off those Garlands greene, doe Lawrell Leaues away.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Tempest (1623) ii. i. 58   How lush and lusty the grasse lookes? How greene ?  
1652   N. Culpeper Eng. Physitian Enlarged 202/2   The greater common Ragwort hath many large and long dark green Leavs.
1727   P. Longueville Hermit 7   Grass, which, tho' as dry as..Hay, was as green as a Leek.
1727   J. Thomson Summer 10   The dark-green Grass.
1770   M. Bruce Elegy viii   On the green furze..The linnet sits, and tricks his glossy plumes.
1838   T. Thomson Chem. Org. Bodies 919   Many kilns have two floors, on the uppermost of which the greener hops are laid.
1843   G. P. R. James Forest Days I. ii. 17   It will make your wheat look ten times greener.
1870   W. Morris Earthly Paradise: Pt. III 2   Green grows the grass upon the dewy slope.
1937   Amer. Home Apr. 90/4   It is said of Buenos Aires that the soil is so fertile that a clothespin planted at night will be sprouting green leaves by morning.
1964   R. W. J. Keay et al. Nigerian Trees II. 188   A very common large forest tree with dark green foliage and distinctive leaves.
2001   J. Grisham Painted House 68   The manicured green grass of Sportsman's Park.

eOE—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 b. gen. Designating minerals, glass, animal fur, plumage, textiles, coloured light, etc.

eOE   Corpus Gloss. (1890) 23/1   Aurocalcum, groeni aar.
eOE   Bald's Leechbk. (Royal) (1865) ii. xxxvi. 242   Wamb [biþ] ungewealden & unyþe micge biþ hal, ac hio biþ sweartre & grenre & blacre þonne hire riht sie.
OE   Vision of Leofric in Rev. Eng. Stud. (2012) 63 549   He stod on middan þære flore aþenedum earmum mid mæsse[reafe] gescrydd & hæfde grene mæssehacelan on him beorhte scinende.
a1200   MS Trin. Cambr. in R. Morris Old Eng. Homilies (1873) 2nd Ser. 163   Hire winpel [is] wit..and hire mentel grene oðer burnet.
?c1335  (a1300)    Land of Cokaygne l. 70 in W. Heuser Kildare-Gedichte (1904) 146   Þe pilers..Beþ iturned of cristale, Wiþ har las [read bas] and capitale Of grene Iaspe and rede corale.
a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) II. xix. xix. 1291   Hunters cloþeþ hemself in grene, for þe beste loueþ kyndeliche grene coloures.
a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 9983   Þe roche..þat painted es wit grene heu.
?a1400  (a1338)    R. Mannyng Chron. (Petyt) ii. 174   Þe sailes.., som were blak & blo, Som were rede & grene.
1463   in S. Tymms Wills & Inventories Bury St. Edmunds (1850) 16   A bagge of grene silk.
▸ ?a1513   W. Dunbar Poems (1998) I. 82   The emerant greyne.
1533   T. Paynell tr. U. von Hutten De Morbo Gallico i. f. 2v   The colour of these pusshes was derke grene, and the syght therof was more greuous vnto the pacient than the peyne it selfe.
1593   B. Barnes Parthenophil & Parthenophe 120   There in a mantle of light greene..Parthenophe they did aray.
a1618   J. Sylvester Monodia in Wks. (1880) II. 330/1   Embroidered gowns Of grass-green silk-shag.
1677   A. Horneck Great Law Consideration (1704) vii. 340   He that looks on a green glass, fancies all things he looks upon to be green.
1687   A. Lovell tr. J. de Thévenot Trav. into Levant i. 6   The whiteness of the Earth..makes many Commanders and Knights to wear green Spectacles.
1727   P. Longueville Hermit 23   Trees where the green sort of Monkeys harbour.
1805   Med. & Physical Jrnl. 14 237   Pain in his head, attended with vomiting, and purging, of a green and bilious matter.
1828   J. Stark Elements Nat. Hist. I. 250   Wing-coverts green, with red margins.
1879   G. C. Harlan Eyesight v. 63   A green light at night marks the ‘starboard’ or right-hand side of a vessel.
1887   Lady 20 Jan. 38/3   Pink satin bags, tied with bow and ends of bronze-green satin ribbon.
1900   Westm. Gaz. 18 Apr. 8/1   The new halfpenny green stamp was on sale yesterday.
1953   A. G. E. Pearse Histochem. vi. 115   The cytoplasm and nucleoli were colourless while the nuclei were green.
2009   Daily Democrat (Woodland, Calif.) (Nexis) 21 Feb.   Jimenez..was sporting glasses that had bright-blue rims and lime-green earpieces.

eOE—2009(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Designating the water of the sea; hence as an epithet of Neptune. In later use also spec. of seawater shipped on board a boat.

c1405  (c1385)    G. Chaucer Knight's Tale (Hengwrt) (2003) l. 1100   The statue of Venus..fro the nauele doun al couered was With wawes grene and brighte as any glas.
c1425   J. Lydgate Troyyes Bk. (Augustus A.iv) v. l. 612 (MED)   Þe se ful ofte with swiche wedris kene Boilyng vp with many wawes grene.
1598   Chaucers Dreame in T. Speght Wks. G. Chaucer f. 361/2   Sailing..Ouer the waues, high and greene.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Antony & Cleopatra (1623) iv. xv. 58   I, that with my Sword, Quarter'd the World, and o're greene Neptunes backe With Ships, made Cities.  
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost vii. 402   Fish that..Glide under the green Wave.  
1773   J. Robertson Poems (rev. ed.) 298   O'er green Neptune 's briny Flood, And his Scale-arm'd Tritons scud To Savannahs smooth.
1785   W. Cowper Task v. 835   When he sees afar His country's weather-bleach'd and batter'd rocks, From the green wave emerging.
1829   W. N. Glascock Sailors & Saints I. 216   You'll have to lighten her at last; for the boats are shipping green seas every minute.
1850   J. Wilson Let. in Mem. (1859) vii. 258   The deep green sea is at your feet.
1867   W. H. Smyth & E. Belcher Sailor's Word-bk.   Green Sea, a large body of water shipped on a vessel's deck; it derives its name from the green colour of a sheet of water between the eye and the light when its mass is too large to be broken up into spray.
1910   F. Innes Diary 1 Feb. in Mariner's Mirror (1974) 60 428   She took a green sea over the forecastle head, lifting me clean over the cat tail and anchor and washed me over the side.
1948   V. Watkins Lady with Unicorn 13   Slipping through listening hands And lips of stone, where stands Green Neptune.
1958   K. Nelson & C. Ford Klondy: Daughter Gold Rush ix. 140   I could smell the sea, and notice the milky-green expanse of open water.
2006   N.Y. Times (National ed.) 17 Dec. v. 7/5   Curving shore pines rise out of the precisely carved undulating azaleas like masts on a green sea.

c1405—2006(Hide quotations)

 

 d. Of meat: putrid from long keeping (with reference to the green surface tint which it acquires).

1847   R. M. Martin China II. vii. 378   Calcutta cured meat perfectly green with putridity.
1863   Morning Star 1 Jan. 5   I know men..who would not touch a hare unless it was regularly ‘green’ before cooking.
1921   J. A. Minturn Amer. Spirit xv. 140   He had helped to hoist meat out of ship's hold that was green with mold, and if he ever became an officer he would see that his men fared as well as he.
1994   D. Nixon Hero of Beecher Island (1997) iv. 85   When the men went to cut some flesh from the dead horses, they found that the meat was green and filled with maggots.

1847—1994(Hide quotations)

 
 2.

 a. Covered with or abundant in foliage or vegetation; verdant; (of a tree) in leaf. Also in extended use.

eOE   Bounds (Sawyer 298) in D. Hooke Pre-Conquest Charter-bounds Devon & Cornwall (1994) 105   Ærest on merce cumb ðonne on grenan pytt.
OE   tr. Bede Eccl. Hist. (Cambr. Univ. Libr.) i. vii. 38   Seo [dun] wæs ða tidlice grene & fæger & mid misenlicum blostmum wyrta afed & gegyred æghwyder ymbutan.
c1175   Ormulum (Burchfield transcript) l. 9985   Sume boȝhess off þatt treo..Swa sinndenn grene þatt teȝȝ þohh Ne berenn næfre wasstme.
c1230  (?a1200)    Ancrene Riwle (Corpus Cambr.) (1962) 70   Treowe ancres beoð a riht briddes of heouene. Þe fleoð on heh & sitteð singin de murie o þe grene bohes.
c1250  (▸OE)    Bounds (Sawyer 1010) in J. M. Kemble Codex Diplomaticus (1846) IV. 98   Andlang ðaes wuduweges on ðone grene pað.
a1325   Gloss. W. de Bibbesworth (Cambr.) (1929) 543   Vert tenail [v.r. terayl] [glossed] grene balke.
c1405  (c1395)    G. Chaucer Friar's Tale (Hengwrt) (2003) l. 86   Wher ridestow vnder this grene shawe.
?a1425   Mandeville's Trav. (Egerton) (1889) 28   Þat gardyne es all way grene.
?c1450   Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 6624 (MED)   He kepid bestys on pasture grene.
c1515   Ld. Berners tr. Bk. Duke Huon of Burdeux (1882–7) xlvii. 157   The erthe was so fayre and grene.
1613   S. Purchas Pilgrimage 648   These Trees are alway greene: some have leaves twice a yeare.
1648   T. Gage Eng.-Amer. xiv. 90   Harboured in a green plot of ground resembling a meadow.
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost iv. 626   Yon flourie Arbors, yonder Allies green .  
1700   J. Dryden Flower & Leaf in Fables 388   On the green Bank I sat, and listen'd long.
1726   E. Fenton in A. Pope et al. tr. Homer Odyssey V. xx. 356   Who..urg'd, for title to a consort Queen, Unnumber'd acres arable and green.
1789   J. Pinkerton Enq. Hist. Scotl. I. iii. viii. 281   They coasted along until they discovered the green vales of Ireland.
1841   E. W. Lane tr. Thousand & One Nights I. 102   Having in his hand a branch of a green tree.
1847   R. W. Emerson Poems 46   Thou..The green silence dost displace, With thy mellow breezy bass.
1860   J. Tyndall Glaciers of Alps i. xvi. 118   We were soon upon the green alp.
1906   B. Carman Pipes of Pan 12   I became aware of each Presence, aspen, bass, and beech; And they all found voice and made A green music in the shade.
1955   K. A. Porter Let. 4 Aug. (1990) viii. 485   I am sitting in a glassed-in sundeck upstairs where I have established my workroom, and have green landscape on all sides.
1990   Countryside Winter 180/2   Opening the back door, I was startled to find a vivid green vista of farmland filled with colorful vegetables, fruits and flowers.
2009   N.Y. Mag. 6 Apr. 112 (advt.)    Water's Edge amenities include..a riverfront promenade and lush green courtyard.

eOE—2009(Hide quotations)

 

 b. Of a season of the year: characterized by abundance of greenery, foliage, etc. Of a winter, Christmas, etc.: mild, without frost or snow.

c1425   J. Lydgate Troyyes Bk. (Augustus A.iv) i. l. 1291   Whan þat..grene ver I-passed were, ay fro ȝer to ȝer, And May was com, þe monyth of gladnes.
a1500  (?a1422)    J. Lydgate Life Our Lady (Adv.) in W. B. D. D. Turnbull Visions of Tundale (1843) 135   The comyng Of greene veer with fresch buddes new.
1588   J. Harvey Discoursiue Probl. conc. Prophesies 62   I know not what greene Christmas, and red Haruest.
1591   A. Fraunce 3rd Pt. Countesse of Pembrokes Yuychurch f. 55   I was borne and bred fiue miles beyond S. Michaels mount, foure summers before the greene winter.
1642   T. Fuller Holy State iii. xix. 202   A green Christmas is neither handsome nor healthfull.
1710   Brit. Apollo 27–29 Nov.   A Green Christmas makes a Fat Church-Yard.
1721   J. Kelly Compl. Coll. Scotish Prov. 30   A green yule makes a fat Church-yard.
1832   Ld. Tennyson Early Sonnets ix   The pits Which some green Christmas crams with weary bones.
1898   Daily News 5 Mar. 5/2   Good English poultry..with prices for the most part high. Owing to the green winter, however, they are not nearly so high as usual.
1971   J. Gardam Long Way from Verona xiv. 120   We had a dirty, warmish Christmas—a ‘green’ Christmas all the old ladies called it, coming out of church.
2001   J. Waterman Arctic Crossing iii. 224   The faux friendliness of people on the street is as fleeting and token as the distant green summer.

c1425—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 3. Of the complexion: having a pale, sickly, or bilious hue, indicative of fear, envy, ill humour, or sickness (also in green and wan, green and pale). Also in extended use. See also green sickness n.With reference to envy, chiefly in green with envy (also jealousy) at Phrases 8, green eye n. at Compounds 1d(a)   (yellow being the traditional colour of jealousy).

a1275   in C. Brown Eng. Lyrics 13th Cent. (1932) 35 (MED)   His bodi þat wes feir & gent & his neb suo scene Wes bi-spit & al to-rend, His rude wes worþen grene.
c1300   Havelok (Laud) (1868) 470   Al-so he wolde with hem leyke, þat weren for hunger grene and bleike.
?c1335   in W. Heuser Kildare-Gedichte (1904) 102   Wel grene and wan sal be is [sc. þe sone] liȝt, And þat for dred.
a1350   in G. L. Brook Harley Lyrics (1968) 63   So muchel y þenke vpon þe þat al y waxe grene.
a1425  (?a1350)    Gospel of Nicodemus (Galba) (1907) l. 70   Þe iewes..wex all ful gul and grene.
c1460  (?c1400)    Tale of Beryn l. 2132 (MED)   His child I have I-norisshid, and þat is by me seen; ffor my rede colour is turnyd in-to grene.
1525   Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles II. lxxxiii. [lxxx.] 251   The duke..waxed pale and grene as a lefe.
c1550   Clariodus (1830) iii. 203   Lang scho lay with deadlie visage greine.
a1616   W. Shakespeare Macbeth (1623) i. vii. 37   Was the hope drunke, Wherein you drest your selfe? Hath it slept since? And wakes it now to looke so greene, and pale, At what it did so freely?
c1650  (a1500)    Eger & Grime (Percy) (1933) 184   Now thou art both pale and greene.
1701   C. Cibber Love makes Man ii. 20   The wholsomst Food for green Consumptive Minds!
1793   Ladies' Diary 31/1   Green envy rolls her baleful eyes.
1794   W. Blake Nurses Song in Songs of Experience   My face turns green and pale.
1887   H. R. Haggard Jess xxxi. 296   The Boers halted and consulted, except Jacobus, who went on, still looking very green.
1920   ‘Sapper’ Bull-dog Drummond ix. 234   Can it be that my little pet is feeling icky-boo? Face going green—slight perspiration—collar tight.
1943   C. Beaton Diary Dec. in Self Portrait with Friends (1979) xiii. 117   And then..his neck and forehead bleeding, his face green, appeared the pilot. ‘Good show,’ the others congratulated him.
1995   Times 10 Jan. 26/6   Having once been the saviour of the construction sector, housebuilding is starting to look a bit green.
2001   R. Nicoll White Male Heart (2002) 243   They spun and she stumbled, her complexion now white and then, on the next turn, green, and he hoped it might be the light from the colour box.

a1275—2001(Hide quotations)

 
 4.

 a. Designating or relating to a green-coloured signal, such as a light, flag, etc., used to give permission to proceed or to indicate safety. Also in figurative contexts. Cf. sense B. 1f.Earliest in green light n.   (see also note there).

1839   Roads & Railroads, Vehicles, & Modes of Travelling xviii. 330   A green light should be placed at each station at the spot where the engine-man should slacken his speed, and a red light at the point where he is to stop.
1869   Rep. Accidents on Railways (Railway Dept.) I. 11/1   The signalman..opened the points leading to the down line..and gave the driver a green signal.
1926   D. R. Lamb Mod. Railway Operation xiii. 152   The colour light signal... The type which has so far found favour in Great Britain is that giving three aspects, green, orange and red, signifying, respectively, ‘all right’, ‘caution’ and ‘danger’.
1951   Sun (Baltimore) 11 Oct. b24/1   The Philadelphia district will be well represented when the 100-mile National Championship, for sportsman stocks, gets the green flag at the Langhorne Speedway, Sunday.
1962   Amer. Speech 37 269   Jack rabbit, a motorist who is proficient at watching the cross-street traffic light; when it turns yellow, he starts up and is into the intersection before the light in front of him has turned green.
1965   W. E. Woodson & D. W. Conover Human Engin. Guide (ed. 2) ii. 214   Green: safe materials, such as water and brine.
1968   Listener 27 June 837/2   A whole host of imitators..had been impatiently waiting for the green light. It now seems sadly obvious that the light was not green.
1992   Pioneer on Sunday (Delhi) 13 Sept. 10/8   The Orissa High court has given the company the green signal for the takeover of OMC Alloys.

1839—1992(Hide quotations)

 
 

 b. Designating a green-coloured channel or exit at a border, through which travellers who have no goods to declare to customs authorities may pass.

1968   Guardian 11 Apr. 1/2   A more selective system of Customs questioning of passengers..is provided for in the finance bill published yesterday... Those who have anything to declare will go through a ‘red’ channel... Those who have nothing to declare will pass through a ‘green’ channel.
1970   Daily Tel. 16 Dec. 3/2   He calmly drove through the ‘green’ channel, indicating he had nothing to declare.
1998   Strad July 688/1   Believing he did not have to declare any of his possessions, Optiz passed through the green customs exit.

1968—1998(Hide quotations)

 

 c. In North America and some European countries: designating a ski run or trail suitable for beginners, marked with a green symbol (cf. green circle n. at Compounds 1d(a)) and represented on a map in green. Cf. sense A. 8c.

[1964   Ski Area Managem. Fall 41/1   Runs will be marked with a green square for the easiest runs.]
1974   H. Evans et al. We learned to Ski 33   Here is what we have found to be the general pattern of designation in Europe... Green: easy, for beginners.
1985   Times 5 Oct. 13/1   Beginners quickly gain confidence and competence on the broad ‘green’ runs.
1992   Economist 26 Dec. 128/1   Today an averagely fit person can master easy green or blue runs within a few days.
2002   Calgary (Alberta) Herald (Nexis) 26 Mar. b3   The snowboarder..was navigating the Pica Trail green run when the crash happened.

1974—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 II. Having qualities which in plants are often indicated by green colour: flourishing, fresh, new, immature.

 5. Of a fruit or plant: young and tender; unripe, not ready to eat; retaining natural moisture, fresh.

eOE   Bald's Leechbk. (Royal) (1865) ii. xxiv. 216   Eft, pintreowes þa grenan twigu ufeweard gegnid on þæt seleste win, sele drincan.
OE   tr. Pseudo-Apuleius Herbarium (Vitell.) (1984) i. 30   Wið earena sar genim þære ylcan wyrte leaf þonne heo grenost beo [L. herbae recentis folia].
a1250  (?c1200)    Prov. Alfred (Maidstone) (1955) 109 (MED)   Mani appel is uten grene, briht on beme, & biter wiþ-innen.
a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) II. xvii. xxiii. 921   Som fruyt þerof is rype, and som grene and sour.
c1400  (c1378)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Laud 581) (1869) B. vi. l. 300 (MED)   Þanne pore folke for fere fedde hunger ȝerne With grene poret and pesen.
c1450   Med. Recipes (BL Add. 33996) in F. Heinrich Mittelengl. Medizinbuch (1896) 141   Take grene walnotes wyþ alle þe hulkes.
?c1450   Life St. Cuthbert (1891) l. 463   Grene resches a few he schare.
1526   W. Bonde Pylgrimage of Perfection iii. sig. KKiiiv   Hurt the grene blade, and you shall haue no whete there.
1578   H. Lyte tr. R. Dodoens Niewe Herball i. xviii. 28   Chamœpitys greene pound..and layde upon great woundes..cureth the same.
1620   T. Venner Via Recta vii. 116   The greene and ripe Figs are hot and moyst in the first degree.
1665   R. Boyle Disc. iv. iv, in Occas. Refl. sig. F4v   Green Fruit, though of a good Kind, will not easily be shaken down.
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost xi. 435   The green Eare, and the yellow Sheaf.  
1727   R. Bradley Chomel's Dictionaire Oeconomique (Dublin ed.) at Cider   Cider..made of green immature Fruit.
?a1775   W. Bartram Trav. Georgia & Florida in Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. (1943) 33 170/2   This shrub, bears green & ripe fruit & flowers all the Year round.
1853   A. Soyer Pantropheon 119   Green walnuts were much esteemed; they were served at dessert.
1884   Public Opinion 3 Oct. 436/1   Beware of green fruit.
1906   Westm. Gaz. 22 Nov. 5/2   The slander case between members of two firms engaged in different branches of the green fruit trade.
1992   Countryside Mar. 42/3   Tomatoes..are actually picked green..and then artificially ripened with ethylene.

eOE—1992(Hide quotations)

 
 6. That has not been prepared or treated for consumption or use.

a. Of vegetables: uncooked, raw. Obsolete.Only attested in Old English.

OE   Ælfric's Colloquy (1991) 37   [Dicit cocus:] Si me expellitis a uestro collegio, manducabitis holera uestra uiridia, et carnes uestras crudas : gif ge me ut adrifaþ fram eowrum geferscype, ge etaþ wyrta eowre grene, & flæscmettas eowre hreawe.
OE   Monasteriales Indicia (1996) lviii. 32   Gesodenra wyrta tacen is þæt þu do mid þinre oðre handa nyþerweard be þære sidan swylce þu wyrta scearffian wille; ðonne þu grene wyrta habban wille, þonne sete þu þinne finger on þine wenstran hande.

OE—OE(Hide quotations)

 

 b. Of an animal skin: raw, untanned, unseasoned.Recorded earliest in greenhide n. at Compounds 1d(a).

OE   Aldhelm Glosses (Brussels 1650) in L. Goossens Old Eng. Glosses of MS Brussels, Royal Libr. 1650 (1974) 356   Recentis corii : noui, grenre hyde.
a1400   in K. W. Engeroff Untersuchung ‘Usages of Winchester’ (1914) 56 (MED)   Also, no man ne may bygge leþer grene ne skyn grene in þe towun, but ȝif he be of fraunchyse.
1577   M. Hanmer tr. Bp. Eusebius in Aunc. Eccl. Hist. viii. xxiii. 163   A yonge man..was wrapped together with a dogge and a serpent in a greene oxe hyde, and caste into the deapth of the sea.
1600   C. Edmondes Obseruations Fiue Bks. Caesars Comm. ii. vii. 78   The vpper roofe was commonly couered with greene or raw hides, to keepe it from burning.
1630   in M. Wood Extracts Rec. Burgh Edinb. (1936) VII. 85   That na maisters nor servandis..pas to anye buith or fleschour hous to buye anye grein skynnis.
1806   S. Fraser Jrnl. 30 June (1960) 211   He gave us..two drysed [dressed] and one green orignal [moose] skins, for which he got goods.
1852   C. Morfit Art of Tanning, Currying, & Leather-dressing (1853) 148   It would be greatly to the interest of the tanner..if all hides were imported in a green state, that is, merely salted.
1910   Mod. Amer. Tanning II. 105   Sheepskins in the green state are easily soaked because of their open nature.
1983   J. E. Churchill Compl. Bk. Tanning Skins & Furs ix. 120   Let it soak for about one hour for a green skin or forty-eight hours for a dry-salted skin.

OE—1983(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Of wood, vegetable fibres, or items made from these: unseasoned, not thoroughly dried.

a1325  (c1250)    Gen. & Exod. (1968) l. 608   Ðe seuendai e[f]t [MS est] ut it tog, And brogt a grene oliues bog.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) v. l. 4959 (MED)   Bardus..hadde gadred him a tasse Of grene stickes and of dreie To selle.
c1430   Acts Parl. Scotl. (1844) I. 337/2   Thai mak the saidillis of grene tymmer quhair thai aw to be maid of widderit and dry.
c1440   Liber de Diversis Med. 6 (MED)   Tak þe grene bowes of an asche & bryne þam, & kepe þe jeuse þat commes owte at þe endis.
1477   Earl Rivers tr. Dictes or Sayengis Philosophhres (Caxton) (1877) lf. 33   Grene wode is hotter than the other whan it is wel kyndeled.
?1523   J. Fitzherbert Bk. Husbandry f. xiiiiv   If the rake be made of grene wode the heed wyll nat abyde vpon ye stele.
1563   J. Foxe Actes & Monuments 1048/1   Greene woode, and other smotheryng rather then burnyng fewel.
1611   Bible (King James) Judges xvi. 7   If they binde mee with seuen greene withs [margin. Or, newe coards, Heb. moist], that were neuer dried.  
a1616   W. Shakespeare As you like It (1623) iii. iii. 80   One of you wil proue a shrunke pannell, and like greene timber, warpe, warpe.  
1628   in P. H. Brown Reg. Privy Council Scotl. (1900) 2nd Ser. II. 438   Aganis putters of greene lint in running waters.
1749   E. Erskine Serm. in Wks. (1871) III. 367   A green yoke is galling and uneasy to the cattle.
1777   G. Forster Voy. round World I. 498   It had unfortunately been packed into new, or what are called green casks.
1875   E. H. Knight Pract. Dict. Mech. 2281/2   Split, a ribbon of wood rived from a rough piece of green timber.
1881   Chicago Times 1 June   Lumber Rep., Quotations for cargoes of green lumber.
1902   G. S. Whitmore Last Maori War iv. 50   A double row of stout green timber, with a ditch and bank behind, from which the defenders fired from loopholes.
1996   Daily Tel. 24 May 12/1   The ceiling starting to take shape is in an unashamedly Gothic style, using green oak, following a modern trend towards unseasoned use of the wood.

a1325—1996(Hide quotations)

 

 d. Of meat or fish: uncured, undried, raw.Recorded earliest in green fish n.

1425   in R. W. Chambers & M. Daunt Bk. London Eng. (1931) 186 (MED)   Item, for grene Fissh, vj d.
1577   W. Harrison Hist. Descr. Islande Brit. iii. viii. f. 109v/1, in R. Holinshed Chron. I   Of these [sc. swine], some we eate greene for porcke, & other dryed vp into Bacon.
1607   E. Topsell Hist. Foure-footed Beastes 604   Their Oxen, Camels, and sheep, eate fishes after they be dryed, for they care not for them when they be green.
1651   in Court Leet Rec. Manch. (1887) IV. 68   For sellinge a stirke beefe wch wee were informed had the turne and for sellinge a quarter of greene beefe the same day.
1697   W. Dampier New Voy. around World xx. 538   Their Legs are wrapt round with Sheep-guts... These are put on when they are green.
1714   tr. French Bk. of Rates 42   Fish-Cod dry..Ditto Green.
1725   I. Watts Logick i. iv. §8   We say, the Meat is green when it is half-roasted.
1789   Glasse's Art of Cookery (new ed.) i. 28   A green ham wants no soaking.
1814   S. Pegge Suppl. Grose's Provinc. Gloss.   Green, raw, not done enough.
1845   B. Disraeli Sybil III. vi. vii. 228   ‘'Tis the tenpence a-pound flitch,’ said the comely dame..‘I have paid as much for very green stuff,’ said Mrs. Mullins.
1879   Cassell's Techn. Educator (new ed.) IV. 352/2   The sides are re-stacked and salted..They are now ‘green bacon’, and only require drying and smoking.
1973   Cookery Year (Reader's Digest Assoc.) 42   Bacon and gammon are cured together in brine for 4 days and then stacked in maturing rooms for 7-11 days. At the end of this stage bacon is known as green bacon.
?1977   W. J. Bursey Undaunted Pioneer 167   While the fish was still green, the Monroe Company sent some vessels to our wharf.
1996   A. Theroux Secondary Colors 271   ‘Green meat’ is a rancher's term for meat that has not been aged.

1425—1996(Hide quotations)

 

 e. Of clay, bricks, pottery, cement, etc.: undried, unburnt, unfired.

1601   P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World II. xxxiv. xviii. 519   Some there be who take file-dust of lead, put the same in an earthen pot of greene potters clay, set the same into an ouen, and so let it calcine therein vntill such time as the pot be well and througly baked.
a1676   J. Dunton House of Weeping (1682) i. 210   If we consider the Substance of Mans Body, which being a Building compact of green Clay, is easily overthrown with a small puff of Wind.
1724   J. Philips et al. tr. Ovid Metamorphoses (ed. 2) I. iv. 98   Thro' the wall that parted them, was left (By the green cement's shrinking) a small cleft.
?1735   Pract. Husbandman & Planter II. vi. 114   Crude green Clay, dug out of deep Fosses or Pits, and burnt into Use for Husbandry.
1825   ‘J. Nicholson’ Operative Mechanic 463   When the clay is in one peculiar state, called the green state.
1875   R. Hunt & F. W. Rudler Ure's Dict. Arts (ed. 7) III. 614   The [bisque] ware being finished from the hands of the potter is brought by him upon boards to the ‘green-house’, so called from its being the receptacle for ware in the ‘green’ or unfired state.
1882   Chambers's Jrnl. 80   The salt-glaze process must essentially modify the ornamentation of the ware, since it receives it in the stage of raw or green clay.
1937   Amer. Home Apr. 138/2   I knew enough about cement products to realize that my ‘green’ or uncured bricks could not be handled without distorting their accurate shapes.
1989   Building Today 22 June 38/3   It's powerful—so it'll drive nails into any timber or even green concrete.

1601—1989(Hide quotations)

 

 f. Of cloth or textile fibres: unbleached. Cf. grey n. 4b. Now historical.

1727   Act 10 Geo. I c. 2 in Statutes at Large Ireland (1786) V. 81   No Unbleached Cloths, called Green Cloths, shall be brought to any Market or Fair, or shall be sold or exposed to Sale, otherwise than in the Folds and no ways tied.
1791   J. Coulter in Statist. Acct. Scotl. I. 363   It [sc. flax] is brought to market, both green and bleached.
1817   Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. Aug. 285/1   Hemp, fur, sailcloth,..common wool, bleached and green linen.
1883   W. Jolly Life John Duncan vi. 54   The firm also had a bleach-field at Rubeslaw,..where ‘green’ linen yard was bleached white.
1913   W. A. G. Clark Cotton Goods in Canada 44   Unbleached yarns are known as gray, or green, yarns and in the weaving trade cloth made from such yarns is known as green linens.
1946   Proc. Huguenot Soc. 17 382   The green linens were bought and sold at the markets, and the professional bleachers carried out the next step in finishing the product for the trade.

1727—1946(Hide quotations)

 
 

 g. Of coffee beans: unroasted.

1761   H. Lloyd Let. 7 Aug. in P. L. White Beekman Mercantile Papers (1956) I. 673   Price Current..Green Coffee 3/9.
1844   Cultivator New Ser. 1 40/2   For sale, the following articles, viz: Green Coffee, Roasted Coffee, Ground Coffee.
1891   Comm. & Architect. St. Louis 104   The trade in roasted coffees..is fast supplanting that in green coffees.
1921   B. Crowell & R. F. Wilson Armies of Industry II. 604   The only way for the troops to secure fresh coffee was for us to send over the green product for roasting as it was needed.
2006   T. Arndorfer & K. Hansen Compl. Idiot's Guide Coffee & Tea 56   Green coffee weighs more than roasted coffee due to moisture loss during roasting.

1761—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 7. Unaltered by time or natural processes; fresh, new.

 a. Of oil, wine, etc.: not yet matured or mellowed by keeping; (in favourable sense) †fresh, not rancid or stale (obsolete). Also (chiefly Scottish) designating the first milk to flow after childbearing, calving, etc. (cf. colostrum n.). Now rare.

eOE   Bald's Leechbk. (Royal) (1865) ii. ii. 180   Gif se maga aþunden sie oþþe aþened, genim þæs selestan wines & grenes eles swilc healf, seoþ wermodes croppan, do on hnesce wulle, smire mid.
1483   Vulgaria abs Terencio (T. Rood & T. Hunte) sig. ovii   This wyne is ouyr grene [printed greue] thatt is ryper.
1519   W. Horman Vulgaria iv. f. 41   A cuppe of grene [L. austerum] wyne.
1600   R. Surflet tr. C. Estienne & J. Liébault Maison Rustique vi. xxii   Such greene wines..are..more hurtfull then any other.
1606   P. Holland tr. Suetonius Hist. Twelve Caesars 22   His Host set before him..olde ranke oile in steed of greene, sweet, & fresh.
1627   P. Forbes Eubulus i. 12   For a Chylde, which hath beene misfostered, by sucking in corrupted Milke, you know, that healthsome greene Milke is the best Restoratiue.
1712   R. Steele Spectator No. 264. ⁋5   It [sc. Port] strengthens Digestion..which green Wines of any kind can't do.
1768   A. Ross Fortunate Shepherdess 6   Reed that her milk gat wrang fan it was green.
1860   R. G. Mayne Expos. Lexicon Med. Sci.   Colostric Fluid..popularly termed green milk.
1880   Jamieson's Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. (new ed.)    Green-milk, milk of a cow just calved, Banffs.
1900   J. Knight Food & Its Functions (new ed.) iv. 129   The age of the calf influences the quality, for, as in human milk, the first milk or ‘green’ milk, called colostrum..is of a purgative nature.
1943   Rev. Econ. Statistics 25 65/2   There is nothing which contradicts the usual notion of equilibrium in the assertion that a gallon of green wine is worth as much as a gallon of mature wine.

eOE—1943(Hide quotations)

 

 b. Of a wound: recent, fresh, unhealed, raw. Frequently figurative. Now archaic and rare.

c1325  (c1300)    Chron. Robert of Gloucester (Calig.) l. 8670   To winchestre he was ilad al mid is grene wounde.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) vii. l. 4618 (MED)   This Arrons..made him woundes ten or tuelve Upon the bak..And so forth with hise hurtes grene..He rod.
c1400   Life St. Alexius (Laud 622) (1878) l. 316   Wiþ his blood and peynes grene.
c1450   in W. R. Dawson Leechbk. (1934) 32 (MED)   Ach of wounde that is grene or new.
?1541   R. Copland Galen's Fourth Bk. Terapeutyke sig. Dj, in Guy de Chauliac's Questyonary Cyrurgyens   Is nat that to cure an vlcere as a grene wounde?
1596   J. Dalrymple tr. J. Leslie Hist. Scotl. (1895) II. 188   Perchance the rememberans of this grene wound..makes ȝow the feirter.
1617   J. Woodall Surgions Mate 108   Resina..is excellent for the cure of greene and fresh wounds.
1625   F. Bacon Ess. (new ed.) iv. 21   A Man that studieth Reuenge, keepes his owne Wounds green.
1642   T. Fuller Holy State v. x. 393   Making the green wound of an errour fester into the old soare of an Heresie.
a1682   Sir T. Browne Certain Misc. Tracts (1683) i. 15   Pouring Oil into a green Wound.
1760   J. Home Siege of Aquileia iii. i. 25   Like a green wound, At first I felt it not.
1766   S. Scott Sir George Ellison I. ii. ii. 172   It may afford room for mirth; but the wound is yet green, and bleeds afresh not only in the presence, but on the thought of her who gave it.
1780   E. Burke Speech Bristol previous to Election 12   Whilst the wounds of those I loved were yet green.
1866   J. Conington tr. Virgil Æneid vi. 193   Her death-wound ghastly yet and green.
1886   T. Hardy Mayor of Casterbridge II. xv. 200   I took it like a lamb, for I saw it could not be settled there. He can rub brine on a green wound!
1932   S. Gwynn Life Horace Walpole i. 28   A letter from Gray plainly echoes what Walpole had written, in that September while the wound was still green.
1937   Lancet 20 Nov. 1204/2   In the later years 18 women appear as surgeons, phlebotomists, bone-setters, or curers of sores and green wounds.
1951   G. Heyer Quiet Gentleman xv. 228   He has certainly taken it better than I expected—but Ulverston's presence cannot but keep the wound green!

c1325—1951(Hide quotations)

 

c. Of a person: recently recovered from an illness (with of). Of a mother: recently delivered of a child. green in earth: just buried. Obsolete.

1474   J. Paston in Paston Lett. & Papers (2004) I. 475   Whyche cheere also hathe made me perffyghtly hool, I thanke God and yow, in so moche þat where as I feeryd me þat for weykenesse, and so green recoveryd off my syknesses, þat I scholde have apeyryd by the weye.
1533   T. More Debellacyon Salem & Bizance f. v   The moder is yet but grene good soule, & hath nede of good kepyng.
1598   R. Bernard tr. Terence Adelphi v. vii, in Terence in Eng. 328   Its the better a great deale, then the greene woman be brought hither through the streete.
1599   W. Shakespeare Romeo & Juliet iv. iii. 41   Where bloudie Tybalt yet but greene in earth, Lies festring in his shroude.  
1660   T. Fuller Mixt Contempl. ii. xxxix. 58   England is this green Woman, lately brought to bed of a long-expected Childe Liberty.
1706   London Gaz. No. 4254/4   William Coster..green of the Small-pox.
1825   J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. Suppl.   Green cow, a cow recently calved; denominated from the freshness of her milk.
1877   H. James American xxv. 452   He thought of Valentin de Bellegarde, still green in the earth of his burial.

1474—1877(Hide quotations)

 

 d. Retaining the traces of newness; perceptibly fresh or recent. Now only in technical uses.

1585   in J. Stuart Extracts Council Reg. Aberdeen (1848) II. 55   Dyuers personis..desyris the bodeis of thair departit freindis to be bureit in the said kirk, swa that throw the multitude of deid bodeis bureit tharin few places is to be fund thairintill but grein grauis.
a1600   MS Rec. Aberdeen in J. Jamieson Etymol. Dict. Sc. Lang. (1825) Suppl. (at cited word)   New and grein graves.
1609   A. Gardyne Garden Grave & Godlie Flowres sig. H   Marke amongs, those Marble Monuments, This Graue, yet grene.
1611   R. Cotgrave Dict. French & Eng. Tongues   Peindre à fraiz, to paint with water-colours on a greene, or new-mortered, wall.
1679   Trials of Wakeman &c. 30   He believes that the hand that writ the Letter..and the Bill that he saw green..were the same.
1721   J. Perry Acct. Stopping Daggenham Breach 87   The Mischief that must ensue if the Tide went over such a green Bank or Wall of Earth.
1739   ‘R. Bull’ tr. F. Dedekind Grobianus 174   Bid 'em be jogging, while their Boots are green.
1776   G. Semple Treat. Building in Water 49   To preserve the green Mortar..from being washed away before it would get proper Time to cement.
1878   F. S. Williams Midland Railway (ed. 4) 653   If the fire is ‘green’ (that is, if coals have only lately been put on).
1970   G. E. Evans Where Beards wag All xxii. 247   They might..have to return to work at a late hour to load a green kiln, that is, move a piece of grain that had reached the final stage of germination, on to the kiln for roasting.
1994   J. Andrews New Edge of Anvil 37   Pack a layer of wet green coal around the sides of the firebox. (Green coal is new, unburnt coal).

1585—1994(Hide quotations)

 
 8. Immature, undeveloped.

 a. Of a thing, esp. something immaterial, such as a thought, plan, etc.: not fully developed or elaborated.

?a1300  (c1250)    Prov. Hendyng (Digby) in Anglia (1927) 51 251 (MED)   He spekeþ wordes grene, Ar þen hoe ben ripe.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) iv. l. 1491 (MED)   So mai a Maiden..Ensample take..and longe er that sche changeth Hir herte upon hir lustes greene To mariage.
1433   Rolls of Parl.: Henry VI (Electronic ed.) Parl. July 1433 §17. m. 16   Þe obeysaunce þat he had in þe reme of Fraunce..was right tendre, right yong and grene.
a1475  (?a1430)    J. Lydgate tr. G. Deguileville Pilgrimage Life Man (Vitell.) l. 2707   Correcte a cause grene & newe.
1579   S. Gosson Schoole of Abuse sig. F.3   Gray heads haue greene thoughts; and young slippes are olde twigges.
1594   H. Plat Diuers Chimicall Concl. Distillation 35 in Jewell House   Vntill som better clarke confirme this greene conceipt.
1648   R. Herrick Hesperides sig. K1v   By the Brides eyes, and by the teeming life Of her green hopes, we charge ye, that no strife..gets place Among ye.
1687   J. Dryden Hind & Panther iii. 120   To ripen green revenge your hopes attend.
1727   D. Defoe Syst. Magick i. i. 2   At that time the Knowledge of Nature was very green and young in the World.
1792   E. Burke Let. 31 Jan. in Corr. (1968) VII. 56   The Regency,..when Prices Sermon appeard, was still green and raw.
1861   C. Reade Cloister & Hearth II. xi. 214   Thy beard is ripe; thy fellow's is green; he shall be the younger.
1876   ‘G. Eliot’ Daniel Deronda IV. viii. lxix. 346   But these are green resolves.
1927   Amer. Mercury July 301/1   Pittsburgh's aesthetic aspirations are still green.
1979   Globe & Mail (Toronto) 12 May 7/3   I detected a lot of rather green prose devoid of that handy tool of the undergraduate—proof of postulation.

?a1300—1979(Hide quotations)

 

b. Of a bird: immature. Obsolete.Recorded earliest in green goose n.

1506   in J. B. Paul Accts. Treasurer Scotl. (1901) III. 399   To the woman that brocht grene geys to the King.
1521   in A. F. Johnston & M. Rogerson Rec. Early Eng. Drama: York (1979) I. 225   Item in xiiijcim aucis vulgariter Grenegeys v d.
1660   S. Fisher Rusticus ad Academicos ii. 38   They run like a company of Green-guls with shells on their heads.

1506—1660(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Of a person, or his or her powers or capacities: immature, raw, untrained, inexperienced. Also of an animal, esp. a racehorse or dog: untrained; frequently in to run green : to run in an undisciplined manner. Cf. green hand n. at Compounds 1d(a), green-headed adj. 1, and greenhorn n. 3.

1548   N. Udall et al. tr. Erasmus Paraphr. Newe Test. I. Luke vi. 75   Unlearned and rawe or grene in cunning.
1585   T. Washington tr. N. de Nicolay Nauigations Turkie iii. xiv. 97 b   As they were young of yeeres and age, they should also bee greene of sense and judgment.
1598   W. Shakespeare Love's Labour's Lost i. ii. 86   It was so sir, for she had a greene wit.  
1603   R. Knolles Gen. Hist. Turkes 744   He being an old commander, and halfe blind, saw more in the matter than all those greene captaines with their sharpe sight.
1639   T. Fuller Hist. Holy Warre i. xii. 18   Green striplings unripe for warre.
1735   W. Pardon Dyche's New Gen. Eng. Dict. (at cited word)   A young or unexperienced Person in Arts, Sciences, &c. is sometimes said to be green.
1822   C. Lamb in London Mag. Feb. 175/1   Green probationers in mischief.
1871   S. Smiles Boy's Voy. Round World (1875) xiii. 136   I had gone out parrot-potting, with another young fellow almost as green as myself.
1876   Coursing Cal. 5   Mr Vyner's puppy appearing to run very green to commence with.
1880   A. H. Huth Life & Writings H. T. Buckle I. iv. 246   [He] chooses his course while his mind is yet green and unformed.
1894   J. D. Astley Fifty Years of my Life II. 75   Actea ran very green, and had a small boy on her back.
1894   Times 10 Jan. 11/5   Very early in her voyage she encountered a very severe storm, and that with a green crew.
1897   Outing May 110/2   Trained coach-horses..as well as green stock.
1908   L. M. Montgomery Anne of Green Gables xxxi. 350   Then we'll be left and have to turn to and break in another green preacher.
1986   Sporting Life Weekender 17–19 Apr. 10/6   She ran very green on her first start and didn't seem to know what racing was about until the final two furlongs.
1989   M. Norman These Good Men ii. 41   The platoon had been under the command of a new lieutenant, very green and very desperate to prove himself.
2007   Horse & Rider Oct. 156 (caption)    Working nicely but still green. Needs experienced person to further her education.

1548—2007(Hide quotations)

 

 d. Of a person: naive, gullible. Also of an idea or action: characterized by, or displaying, naivety.

1605   G. Chapman Al Fooles iv. i   You're green, your credulous; easy to be blinded.
1695   W. Congreve Love for Love iv. i. 65   He hadn't a word to say, and so I left 'n, and the Green Girl together.
1753   Scots Mag. Oct. 490/2   Green..I continued even in externals near two years.
1825   C. M. Westmacott Eng. Spy I. 236 (note)    ‘Chaunting’ a horse to a green one.
1843   C. Dickens Martin Chuzzlewit (1844) xxvii. 332   I've been and got married. That's rather green, you'll say.
1861   T. Hughes Tom Brown at Oxf. I. iv. 71   Most readers..will think our hero very green for being puzzled at so simple a matter.
1952   M. Kennedy Troy Chimneys 76   I must have been very green if I really entertained the idea of seducing her.
1998   Muscle News No. 33. 24/3   Last year..I was still green. I was sold some fake items and it cost me.

1605—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 9. Full of vitality; not withered or worn out.

 a. Of immaterial things, esp. a person's memory, or the memory of an event.

1340   Ayenbite (1866) 116 (MED)   Þet is a grace þet bedeaweþ þe herte..and makeþ his al become grene and berþ ynoȝ frut of guode workes.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) i. l. 1298   For evere it is aliche grene, The grete love which I have.
a1500  (?c1378)    J. Wyclif Eng. Wks. (1880) 408   A curat shulde preche to þe puple treuþis of goddis lawe þat euere ben grene.
1535   W. Stewart tr. H. Boethius Bk. Cron. Scotl. (1858) I. 549   The rancour wes so ruttit in thair hairt, And in thair mynd so recent and so grene, That [etc.].
1583   P. Stubbes Anat. Abuses sig. Hviv   The remembrance wherof is yet green in their heds.
1666   J. Bunyan Grace Abounding §233. 108   Those Graces of God that now were green on me.
1772   S. Whyte Shamrock 49   Though no Statues weep upon thy Tomb, No storied Pillars labour with thy Fame, Green, even in Age, thy Memory shall bloom.
1823   C. Lamb Old Benchers in Elia 207   He is yet in green and vigorous senility.
1888   J. W. Burgon Lives Twelve Good Men II. vii. 121   Memorials, which will keep his memory fresh and green for many a long year.
1896   A. Dobson 18th Cent. Vignettes 3rd Ser. i. 8   His still green recollections of that memorable night.
1935   C. Porter Begin the Beguine in R. Kimball Compl. Lyrics C. Porter (1983) 133   When they begin the beguine it brings back..a memory ever green.
1992   Harper's Mag. June 36/1   A particular porch in Warren County, North Carolina, has been a vital place in my life, from birth well into manhood and now in green memory.

1340—1992(Hide quotations)

 

 b. Of the body. Also spec. of the bones: full of marrow; living.

a1522   G. Douglas tr. Virgil Æneid (1957) i. x. l. 6   Within hir banys greyn The hoyt fyre of lufe to kyndill.
1526   R. Whitford tr. Martiloge 140   His holy body .x. yeres after was founde in the same state and maner and the flesshe and blode as grene and fresshe as the same daye he was slayne.
1577   M. Hanmer tr. Bp. Eusebius in Aunc. Eccl. Hist. viii. vii. 9   Their freshe and greene bodyes.
1658   J. Spencer Καινα και Παλαια 98   The children of God..seem withered, and as it were dead, yet the wicked all that time flourish, and do appear green in the eyes of the World.
1916   Southwestern Reporter 179 82   He testified positively that the blood upon the bones was human blood; that the bones were fresh green skull bones.
2006   New Yorker 24 Apr. 147/3   The shape of the impressions told her that they had been made on fresh, ‘green’ bone.

a1522—2006(Hide quotations)

 

 10. Of a person: young, youthful; not advanced in years. Of a person's age: tender.

a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) I. vi. vi. 302   A maide hatte virgo and haþ þat name of grene [L. viridiori] age.
c1475  (?c1451)    Bk. Noblesse (Royal) (1860) 44   Johan duc of Bedforde..in his grene age was lieutenaunt of the marchis.
a1500  (?c1450)    Merlin xviii. 287   The childeren were tendre and grene.
1508   W. Dunbar Goldyn Targe (Chepman & Myllar) in Poems (1998) I. 188   Syne tender Youth come wyth hir virgyns ying, Grene Innocence, and schamefull Abaising.
1555   Lydgate's Auncient Hist. Warres betwixte Grecians & Troyans i. v. sig. C.viv/1   This is affyrmed of them that were ful sage, And specially whyle they be grene [1513 Pynson tendre] of age.
1563   B. Googe Eglogs Epytaphes & Sonettes sig. C.i   Eche thyng is easely made to obaye, whyle it is yong and grene.
1596   J. Dalrymple tr. J. Leslie Hist. Scotl. (1888) I. 61   Wormes, of quhilkes sum war ȝit greine & ȝoung.
1601   W. Cornwallis Ess. II. ix. sig. Nn   The world in his greenest time laye in the armes of ignorance.
1611   M. Smith in Bible (King James) Transl. Pref. 4   In that new world and greene age of the Church.
1664   in G. Miege Relation of Three Embassies (1669) 423   I never yet saw a Prince..whose young mine [sic] did in his greenest years promise and threaten so much and so handsomly.
1743   E. Young Complaint: Night the Fifth 39   Though grey our Heads, our Thoughts and Aims are Green.
1748   S. Richardson Clarissa VII. lxix. 236   A little time hence, the now green head will be gray.
1807   J. Barlow Columbiad vii. 271   Green in years But ripe in glory.
1814   Intrigues of Day iii. iii, in New Brit. Theatre I. 112   As the proverb says, a grey head is often placed on green shoulders.
1817   W. Scott Rob Roy I. i. 4   Your greener age and robust constitution promise longer life.
1898   Weekly Free Press (Aberdeen) 25 June   Tho' his body was wither'd his heart was aye green.
1915   E. T. Fowler Ten Degrees Backward 222   Even if it had been possible, grey heads on green shoulders are not an attractive combination.
2006   I. Doig Whistling Season (2007) iv. 136   Maybe it simply proved that I was green in years, but I was not about to tell a woman she had just spent the night in my dream.

a1398—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 III. In extended uses.

 11. Relating to or supporting the Irish nationalist cause (frequently contrasted with orange; cf. Orange adj.2 2). In later use also more generally: of or relating to Ireland. Cf. sense B. 4c.

1823   J. Gamble Charlton I. xiv. 224   Be they drunk, or be they devils (that is always supposing they are neither orange nor green) I shall make one among them.
1865   Catholic World July 477/1   ‘It is’, as he fairly says, ‘free from personalities, and neither of an orange nor a green complexion.’
1920   O. Wister Straight Deal xvi. 259   It was the Orange Irish who fought in our Revolution, not the Green Irish.
1961   C. H. Cramer Newton D. Baker i. 16   Whatever Irish blood he had was not green—it was red, white, and blue!
1994   BBC Holidays Oct. 10/3   Some pubs hold Irish musical evenings. Yes, they're full of tourists and ‘Green Americans’ in search of their roots.
2001   Boston Globe 25 Feb. 1   Lawrence's green legacy as a center of Irish nationalism is recalled in a 6,000-piece Irish collection.

1823—2001(Hide quotations)

 
 

 12. Designating a currency unit of account formerly used in calculating agricultural transactions under the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union and its predecessors; (also) designating or calculated according to the exchange rate associated with this. Cf. green pound n. at Compounds 1d(a).The use of the agricultural unit of account was abolished on the introduction of European Monetary Union in 1999.

1969   N.Y. Times 25 Oct. 45/2   Prices are fixed in dollar-based units of account, the so-called ‘green dollar’, throughout the European Economic Community.
1979   Internat. Organization 33 340   An artificial so-called ‘green rate’ of exchange was introduced as a political expedient and to somewhat maintain the fiction of ‘common CAP prices’.
1981   J. Pearce Common Agric. Policy v. 38   With or without a devaluation of the green franc, prices of exports and imports expressed in francs would have risen because, though agricultural prices were fixed in units of account, proceeds from exports and payments for imports were converted at the new market exchange rate.
2006   R. Dahrendorf in R. Rogowski & C. Turner Shape of New Europe x. 189   Common agricultural policy means common prices; the latter have to be expressed in a unit of currency, i.e. the green mark, or rather the green dollar.

1969—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 13.

 a. Of, relating to, or supporting environmentalism, esp. as a political issue; (also with capital initial) belonging to or supporting an environmentalist political party. Cf. Green Party n. at Compounds 1d(e)   and sense B. 15.The association of the colour green with the environmentalist lobby, esp. in Europe, dates from the early 1970s in West Germany, notably with the Grüne Aktion Zukunft (Green Campaign for the Future), and the grüne Listen (green lists) of election candidates, both of which emerged mainly from campaigns against nuclear power stations.green activist, audit, movement, etc.: see Compounds 1d(e).

[1971   Vancouver Sun 4 Sept. iii. 29/1   Those of us on board the Greenpeace will be deliberately ignoring the warning.]
1973   Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 4 June 8/10   ‘Green’ bans have been introduced by the New South Wales Building and Construction Workers' Union.
1978   Economist 14 Jan. 39/1   European politics are turning green; or so the ecologists would have us believe.
1985   Times 25 Apr. 13/6   Dr David Clark, Labour MP for South Shields and Opposition spokesman on ‘green’ issues.
1989   Independent (Nexis) 9 Sept. 3/1   A new ‘green’ tax which could double the price of electricity, gas and petrol in the next five years.
2010   New Yorker 11 Oct. 74/3   The E.D.F., virtually alone among green groups in trying to form bonds with Republicans.

1973—2010(Hide quotations)

 
 

 b. Of a product, service, etc.: designed, produced, or operating in a way that minimizes harm to the natural environment.green burial, energy, fuel, etc.: see Compounds 1d(e).

1979 [see green fuel n. at Compounds 1d(e)].
1980   Fourth Global Training Programme in Environmental Law (United Nations Environment Programme) 23/1   Less than 1 per cent of energy then came from green sources.
1990   Environment 120/2   We have to give the supermarkets credit for numerous green ventures, including own-brand environmentally-friendly products.
1993   Garbage July 26/1   Car makers apparently agree with environmentalists that the pressure to create cleaner, greener cars will prevail.
2001   Time 30 Apr. y10   This year, and additional 1,000 MW of green power will come on-line, thanks to a doubling of wind capacity.

1979—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 14. Particle Physics. Of a quark: having the colour green (sense B. 14).

1975   F. E. Close in Acta Physica Polonica B. 6 788   One can make the three-quark system totally antisymmetric by introducing a new degree of freedom for the quarks. We paint them red, green or blue.
1984   P. Davies Superforce (1985) viii. 126   The effect of gluon emission or absorption, then, is to change the identity of a quark, for instance from a red quark to a green quark.
1998   J. Gribbin Q is for Quantum 302   The proton, for example, should be thought of as made up..of one red/up quark, one green/down quark and one blue/up quark.
2006   M. Oertel & M. Buballa in D. Blaschke & D. Sedrakian Superdense QCD Matter & Compact Stars 189   It is observed from Eq. (1) that s22 only involves quarks of two colors, e.g., red and green quarks.

1975—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 B. n.1
 1.

 a. The green part of anything; (also) something which is green; a green species or variety of an animal or a substance.

eOE   Bald's Leechbk. (Royal) (1865) ii. lxv. 292   Genim þonne geongre acrinde handfulle & swa swigende æt ham gebring & næfre in on þone mon, sceafe þæt grene on utan, wylle þa sæpspone on cu meolce.
OE   Lacnunga (2001) I. clxxi. 120   Gif man scyle mugcwyrt to læcedome habban, þonne nime man þa readan wæpnedmen & þa grenan wifmen to læcecræfte.
1526   Treasure of Pore Men f. x   Take..the grene of the Elder bytwene the barke & ye tree.
1764   S. Foote Patron i. 8   Sever the green [i.e. the ‘green fat’ of turtle] from the shell, with the skill of the ablest anatomist.
1877   H. D. Minot Land-birds & Game-birds New Eng. 119   The ordinary notes of the ‘Black-throated Greens’ are numerous, being a tsip, a chick, which is sometimes soft and sometimes loud.
1895   R. Kipling in New Rev. 12 603   O the green that thunders aft along the deck !
1897   Outing 30 380/2   It seems that they were out of tobacco, and had been able to get only the ‘long green’ that the mountaineers used.
1902   L. S. Keyser Birds of Rockies 207   Before man came and settled in those valleys, the violet-greens found the crevices of rocks well enough adapted for their needs.
1995   Weekend Times 14 Jan. 8   150 were rare Javan greens, the most brightly-coloured of an endangered species.

eOE—1995(Hide quotations)

 
1728   M. Delany Autobiogr. & Corr. (1861) I. 172   The man at the Poultry has tea of all prices,—Bohea from thirteen to twenty shillings, and green from twelve to thirty.
1749   D. Garrick Let. 3 Aug. (1963) I. 106   The Breakfast was at a Stand! Mr Maud's..best Green cool'd in ye Cups.
1835   C. Dickens in Bell's Life in London 4 Oct. 1/1   Two ounces of seven and sixpenny green.
1838   C. Dickens Oliver Twist III. xxxviii. 31   Half a pound of seven and sixpenny green, so precious strong..it'll go nigh to blow the lid of the teapot off.
1914   Amer. Cookery Aug.–Sept. 144/2   Where green is liked it may be used in the proportion of two ounces of green to one pound of black.
2006   J. Salter Life is Meals 146   Green has the lowest levels of caffeine..while black has twice that.

1728—2006(Hide quotations)

 

c. A greenhorn; a simpleton. Cf. sense A. 8d. Obsolete.

1824   Spirit of Public Jrnls. 1823 63   It appears that George Charteris..had been ‘doing’ the green, and taking in the ‘deep ones’, quite in the gull-catching style, for a considerable period.
1840   G. Thompson Newgate Cal. 280   I then with my comrade stole from a green twelve shirts..and some stockings.
1841   Southern Literary Messenger 7 54/2   I knifed a flat-boat Hoozier—took his lucre—Went up the country—rifled twenty greens.
[1853   ‘C. Bede’ (title)    The adventures of Mr. Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman.]
1924   Truth (Sydney) 27 Apr. 6   Green, inexperienced person.

1824—1924(Hide quotations)

 

d. slang. With the. Absinthe. Obsolete. rare.  [Compare French verte, noun (1866).]

1889   E. Dowson Let. 18 Feb. (1967) 36   I have not felt myself since my generous allowance of the potent green on Thursday & was right ‘orf’ the fascinating fluid yesterday.

1889—1889(Hide quotations)

 

 e. In singular and plural. slang (originally U.S.). Money. Cf. greenback n. 3   and long green n. at long adj.1 and n.1 Compounds 4a.

1917   N.Y. Tribune 8 May 9/1   They'd rather land in The Tower with a squib Than rake in the well-known green.
1925   Flynn's Mag. in E. Partridge Dict. Underworld (1968) 307   Greens, paper currency; bank notes.
1961   New Statesman 21 July 81/2   The hours proved to be from four to half eleven in the morning and the greens would amount to eight ten a week.
1962   L. Deighton Ipcress File vi. 44   At five shillings a dose that's a lot of green.
1968   Scottish Daily Mail 3 Jan. 6   What had been ‘dough’ in the 20's and became ‘readies’ and ‘greens’ in the 50's turned up again as ‘bread’.
1971   ‘R. Crawford’ Badger's Daughter i. ii. 24   When finally we did lay our mitts on a nice pile of green, Arthur simply knuckled under to luxury.
2003   Word May 108/3   Man's unwavering desire to cheat, fiddle and finagle his fellow man out of their hard-earned green.

1917—2003(Hide quotations)

 

 f. A green light or flare, etc., used as a signal. Also figurative. Cf. sense A. 4a.

[1895   Jrnl. Assoc. Engin. Societies 15 286   In this country white is generally used to signify safety; green is used to signify caution..while red is used to signify danger..in England, safety is signified by green, danger by red.]
1936   Pop. Mech. Apr. 13/3   The amber is to follow the green, but, never to follow the red as it does now in many cities.
1953   R. Chisholm Cover of Darkness ii. 30   At last I was given a ‘green’, but the dim pattern of aerodrome lights made little sense by this time.
1962   J. Braine Life at Top ii. 31   The car in front of me stalled and I missed the green.
1963   ‘W. Haggard’ High Wire xi. 116   Overhead there was the unmistakable clatter of a helicopter, then another. Somebody fired a green.
1991   A. McCarten Modest Apocalypse & Other Stories 141   Elliot waited at the lights for a green, the Corona humming evenly.

1936—1991(Hide quotations)

 

 g. slang (originally U.S.). Marijuana or cannabis.

1957   J. Kerouac On the Road iii. ii. 184   He got hold of some bad green [1951 Orig. Scroll bad s--t], as it's called in the trade—green, uncured marijuana.
1958   A. Ginsberg 26 June in Let. (2008) 190   Bill now smoking Green all drest in distinguished Averill Harriman black worsted flannel, thin, graying temples.
1969   Observer 12 Jan. 30/3   Everybody was talking pot last week (or Mary Jane, tea, grass, weed, hay, boo, gage, green or technically cannabis sativa).
2005   High Times Mar. 10/3   They fuckin' smoke green! I bet they smoke only the best green, since they're practically rich.

1957—2005(Hide quotations)

 
 2.

 a. Vegetation, foliage, greenery.In quot. a1250   used allusively to suggest youthful vigour; compare sense B. 2c.

OE   Metrical Charm: For Unfruitful Land (Calig. A.vii) 15   Bere siþþan ða turf to circean..and wende man þæt grene to ðan weofode.
a1250   in C. Brown Eng. Lyrics 13th Cent. (1932) 15   Þar-vore, man, þu þe biþench,—al sel valui þe grene.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) v. l. 7824 (MED)   Whan Somer hath lost al his grene, And is with Wynter wast and bare.
c1405  (c1395)    G. Chaucer Franklin's Tale (Hengwrt) (2003) l. 543   The bittre frostes with the sleet and reyn Destruyed hath the grene in euery yerd.
a1475  (?a1430)    J. Lydgate tr. G. Deguileville Pilgrimage Life Man (Vitell.) l. 3814 (MED)   Wheroff sholde ye ha socour..with newe grene a-gayn Clothen the busshes in ther maner?
1563   B. Googe Eglogs Epytaphes & Sonettes sig. Ai   The Ram..forceth ground (yt spoyld of grene Did lye,) newe grene to yelde.
1657   R. Ligon True Hist. Barbados 50   Poor Sambo..and as good a natur'd poor soul, as ever wore black, or eat green.
1710   J. Addison Tatler No. 218. ⁋1   This Summer..while the Green was new.
1725   A. Pope tr. Homer Odyssey II. v. 90   Vines..With purple clusters blushing thro' the green.
1882   F. W. H. Myers Renewal of Youth 183   All the scarlet flowers and tossing green.
1946   D. C. Beattie Road of Naturalist v. 52   We paralleled the fresh alluvial green winding along the Sevier's course.
1989   B. Alberts et al. Molecular Biol. Cell (ed. 2) i. 10   This cell..took the lead in the process of cell division that eventually covered the earth with green.

OE—1989(Hide quotations)

 

b. A tree, herb, or other plant, esp. one that is young and flourishing. Occasionally spec. an evergreen. Usually in plural. Obsolete.In quot. eOE: the fruit of a plant, specifically glossing Latin acinum grape, so as to emphasize the contrast with uva passa dried grape, raisin.

eOE   Cleopatra Gloss. in W. G. Stryker Lat.-Old Eng. Gloss. in MS Cotton Cleopatra A.III (Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ.) (1951) 52   Ad acinum, ða grenan. [L. quicquid ex vinea esse potest ab uva passa usque ad acinum non comedent.]
a1400   Psalter (Vesp.) xxxvi. 2 in C. Horstmann Yorkshire Writers (1896) II. 167 (MED)   Als wortes of grenes [L. olera herbarum] tite fal sal þai.
a1500   in Antiquary (1901) 37 55 (MED)   All that lande was ov[e]r cov[e]red with froste and snowe, and no man[ne]r of grenes apperyng in no place.
1593   T. W. Tears of Fancie xlvii, in Poems (1870) 202   How each pleasant greene, Will now renew his sommers liuerie.
1605   J. Sylvester tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Deuine Weekes & Wks. ii. ii. 387   As the Sommers sweet-distilling drops..Re-greens the Greens, and doth the flowers re-flower.
1664   J. Evelyn Kalendarium Hortense 71 in Sylva   Myrtils, and other curious Greens.
1679–88   in J. Y. Akerman Moneys Secret Services Charles II & James II (1851) (Camden) 121   Several orange trees and other greens.
1688   R. Holme Acad. Armory ii. 86/2   Greens are such Trees or Herbs as are green all the year.
1699   M. Lister Journey to Paris (new ed.) 204   Their Oleanders, Laurels, Lentiscus's and most other Greens had suffered miserably.
c1710   C. Fiennes Diary (1888) 142   A large fountaine..with flower potts and Greens set round ye Brimm.
1715   A. Pope Temple of Fame 7   In that soft Season when descending Showers Call forth the Greens, and wake the rising Flowers.
1721   E. Young Revenge v. ii   How every green is as the ivy pale!

eOE—1721(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Greenness as indicative of vigorous growth or youth; vigorous or flourishing things regarded collectively; frequently figurative: vigour, youthfulness, vitality.Now chiefly in in the green at Phrases 7.

c1595   Countess of Pembroke Psalme xcii. 36 in Coll. Wks. (1998) II. 140   Like Cedar high And like Date-bearing tree, For greene, and growth the iust shall be.
1597   T. Middleton Wisdome of Solomon Paraphr. xi. sig. O2v   Man had..perisht in the spring-time of his greene.
1645   G. Walker Sermon 30   The Lord is ready and waiteth for our amendment, that instantly and without delay he may scatter them as with a whirlewinde both the green and the dry.
1674   E. Calamy et al. Saints Memorials 53   The Righteous have the Green of Profession, and the fruitfulness of their conversation; and 'tis pleasant Fruit.
1782   J. Howie Biogr. Scoticana (ed. 2) 308   He repeated this expression thrice over, Lord, spare the green and take the ripe.
1866   J. M. Neale Sequences & Hymns 26   How this saplessness shall flush to green.

c1595—1866(Hide quotations)

 

 d. In plural. Freshly-cut branches, leaves, or other greenery used for decoration. U.S. in later use.

1675   L. Addison Present State Jews xix. 176   They have a Custom at this Feast to strow the Synagogues, their dwelling Houses, and the Streets..with Greens, and to wear some upon their heads;..to commemorate that pleasant Verdure which was upon Mount Sinai.
1697   J. Dryden tr. Virgil Georgics i, in tr. Virgil Wks. 55   The peaceful Ground; Which only Turfs and Greens for Altars found.  
1702   London Gaz. No. 3842/2   A Triumphal Arch..adorned with Greens and Flowers.
1767   Dodd Pious Memory 44 Poems 194   Strew thy greens and flowers so sweet.
1878   H. B. Stowe Poganuc People iv. 42   The Christmas greens in the church.
1897   Globe 18 Feb. 6/4   The staircase was ‘trimmed with green’, to use the expression current in the States.
1907   Overland Monthly Jan. 67   The interior of the palace was beautifully decorated with greens, and with the American and Turkish flags entwined.
2004   L. Linsley Nantucket Christmas‎ 8   The mantels are strewn with greens, and the gracious stairway banister is wound with garlands.

1675—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 3.

 a. Chiefly British. A piece of public or common grassy land situated in or near a town or village, from which it often takes its name; a village green.

1190–1200   in K. Major Registrum Antiquissimum Cathedral Church Lincoln (1940) II. 141   Tres seliones super Grene ante portam.
1248   in F. W. Maitland Select Pleas in Manorial Courts (1889) I. 17 (MED)   Willelmus et Goda dant..Juliane unum horreum et unum curtillagium propinquius la Grene.
1300   in Collectanea Topographica & Genealogica (1836) III. 115 (MED)   Ardlestones grene.
1342   in J. Robertson Illustr. Topogr. & Antiq. Aberdeen & Banff (1857) III. 44   De illo tenemento..in vico del Grene [in Aberdeen].
c1460   in A. Clark Eng. Reg. Oseney Abbey (1907) 140 (MED)   Also ij Acris In myddilfurlonge next of the Grene.
1477   in J. Stuart Extracts Council Reg. Aberdeen (1844) I. 35   Adam Strath till haue the Schipraw, with the Grene.
1509   in J. T. Fowler Memorials Church SS. Peter & Wilfrid, Ripon (1888) III. 172   j grangia juxta Bondegate Greyn in tenura relictæ Joh. Tomlynson.
1533   T. More Confutation Barnes in Wks. 792/2   If Barns had not tolde vs so, we woulde haue went that Christe had bode hym..tarye till he coulde geate all the knowen catholike church together vpon a Greene.
1581   Protocol Bk. J. Robertsone (Edinb. Reg. House) 16   Ane for hous lyand within the grene of the said burcht.
1606   in W. H. Stevenson Rec. Borough Nottingham (1889) IV. 280   Common balkes and greens within and about the feilds of this towne.
1718   Free-thinker No. 80. 1   Every Holiday, she danced upon the Green.
1770   O. Goldsmith Deserted Village 7   Sweet Auburn! loveliest village of the plain, How often have I loiter'd o'er thy green.
1805   R. Forsyth Beauties Scotl. II. 131   The principal market for sheep and lambs..is held on a large green.
1835   C. Thirlwall Hist. Greece I. x. 389   Sports, not essentially different from those of our village greens.
1870   E. Peacock Ralf Skirlaugh III. 234   On the southern side of Wivilby was a little green.
1888   ‘P. Daryl’ Ireland's Dis. 8   Dublin is provided with fine public gardens and splendid parks, which are here called greens.
1907   J. H. Smith Our Struggle for 14th Colony iv. 118   The greater part of his men stepped forward [i.e. volunteered]. The next day these resolutes..appeared again on the Green.
1996   C. Higson Getting Rid of Mr Kitchen vii. 80   A village fête on the green outside the pub.

1190–1200—1996(Hide quotations)

 

 b. gen. Grassy ground; a grassy spot (now chiefly British regional). Also (chiefly with modifying word) a piece of grassy ground used for a particular purpose.bleaching-, bowling-green: see the first element.

c1225  (?c1200)    St. Juliana (Bodl.) l. 704 (MED)   Igripe ha me eanes, ne ga i neauer mare þrefter o grene.
c1300   Havelok (Laud) (1868) 2840   Sket was þe swike on þe asse leyd, And led vntil þat ilke grene.
?a1400  (a1338)    R. Mannyng Chron. (Petyt) ii. 2 (MED)   Ine..went to þe bataile in a fulle faire grene þat is vnder Kampedene, a medew I wene.
c1400   Life St. Anne (Minn.) (1928) l. 2397 (MED)   Þai went þe cete þan wythowte Tyll a grene fayr & dry.
?a1450   Agnus Castus (Stockh.) (1950) 139 (MED)   Also it [sc. Camamilla]..growyȝt on grenys and in gardynggis.
c1480  (a1400)    St. Blaise l. 241 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) I. 368   Sewine sarkis schene he gert lay a-pone þe grene.
a1500  (a1460)    Towneley Plays (1994) I. iii. 47   Behald on this greyn! Nowder cart ne plogh Is left.
c1540  (?a1400)    Destr. Troy 7732   The grete horses on the grene girdon abacke.
1594  (a1555)    D. Lindsay Hist. Squyer Meldrum l. 439, in Wks. (1931) I. 157   No man..preissit to cum within the grene, Bot Heraldis and the Campiounis kene.
1603   R. Knolles Gen. Hist. Turkes 966   All enriched with goodly gardens and pleasant greenes.
1646   J. Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 227   The whole country flat and even as a bowling-green.
1657   J. Howell Londinopolis 398   Go and walk in her [sc. London's] Fields, you shall see some shooting at long marks, some at Buts; some bowling upon dainty pleasant Greens, some upon Bares.
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost iv. 325   Under a tuft of shade that on a green Stood whispering soft.  
1715   A. Pope tr. Homer Iliad I. iii. 224   Tho' some of larger Stature tread the Green.
1832   Ld. Tennyson Palace of Art xvii, in Poems (new ed.) 74   Mid misty woods on sloping greens.
1877   W. Black Green Pastures xix   You..nearly put your foot in it by chaffing old Chorley about selling the piece of green.
1886   Act 49 & 50 Vict. c. 59 §14   Any lands being an orchard, bleach-green, walled garden, haggard, or yard.
1906   J. Vaughan Wild-flowers Selborne 56   The ledges and ‘greens’ which line the almost perpendicular chalk cliffs at Freshwater.
1916   T. S. Eliot Let. 6 Sept. (1988) I. 150   The old men..play bowls on the green in the evening.
1952   W. M. Alexander Place-names Aberdeenshire 66   Further west, stretches of green pasture in heather areas are still called ‘greens’.
1999   Bowls Internat. May 44/2   When I do decide to retire, the only consideration will be how I am performing on the green and on recent evidence there's still some life in the old dog yet.

c1225—1999(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Golf. A putting green; a fairway. Also: a golf course (now rare).

1849   Chambers's Information for People (new ed.) II. 654/1   The holes are situated at the different ends and sides of the green, at irregular distances.
1878   ‘Capt. Crawley’ Football, Golf & Shinty 83   Green, a name for the Putting-ground, or for the Links or field.
1890   John Bull 5 Apr. 225/3   There will soon be more greens in England than in Scotland.
1924   J. Braid Golf Guide 164   Par Play, perfect golf without flukes. Thus, if a green can be reached in two strokes, the hole is a Par four; two putts being allowed on each green.
1981   Daily Tel. 20 Aug. 3/4   It was a blind hole and when we reached the green we thought we had overstruck and gone into the rough.
2006   N.Y. Times (National ed.) 8 June e8/2   Also called ironwoods or utilities, hybrids put the ball higher into the air, so shots from 200 yards are more likely to stick on the green.

1849—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 4.

 a. Green colour; greenness. In plural: different tints of green. †in green (Heraldry): on a field of green (obsolete).Green is a primary additive colour.Frequently with prefixed nouns or adjectives denoting a particular shade. almond, emerald, leek-, parrot, pea-, sea-, Spanish green: see the first element.

?c1225  (?a1200)    Ancrene Riwle (Cleo. C.vi) (1972) 119   Grene of alle heowes froureð mest echnen.
c1275  (?a1200)    Laȝamon Brut (Calig.) (1978) l. 12302   Þat heo wolden of ane heowen heore claðes habben. Sum hafde whit sum hafden ræd sum hafde god grene æc.
a1393   J. Gower Confessio Amantis (Fairf.) vii. l. 1168 (MED)   That is Novembre..Whan that the lef hath lost his greene.
c1405  (c1380)    G. Chaucer Second Nun's Tale (Hengwrt) (2003) l. 90   Or for she whitnesse hadde of honestee And grene of conscience, and of good fame The swote sauour lilie was hir name.
1488  (c1478)    Hary Actis & Deidis Schir William Wallace (Adv.) (1968–9) ix. l. 238   A bar off blew in-till his schenand scheild, A bend off greyn desyren ay the feild.
1544   Will of Charles White (P.R.O.: PROB. 11/30) f. 179v   A gowne lyned of gosetourde grene.
1572  (a1500)    Taill of Rauf Coilȝear (1882) 457   He bair grauit in Gold, and Gowlis in grene..Ane Tyger.
1598   Floure & Leafe in T. Speght Wks. G. Chaucer f. 366/1   Leues new..Some very red and some a glad light grene.
1644   K. Digby Two Treat. ii. iii. 385   By seuerall compoundings of these extremes, reds, blewes, yellowes, greenes, and all other intermediate colours may be generated.
1658   W. Sanderson Graphice 84   The best is Cedar-green.
1667   J. Milton Paradise Lost vii. 479   In all the Liveries dect of Summers pride With spots of Gold and Purple, azure and green .  
1713   A. Pope Windsor-Forest 9   In the clear azure Gleam the Flocks are seen, And floating Forests paint the Waves with Green.
1728   E. Chambers Cycl. (at cited word)   The Dyers make divers Shades, or Casts of Green, as Light-Green, Yellow-Green, Grass-Green, Laurel-Green, Sea-Green, Dark-Green, Parrot-Green, and Celadon-Green.
c1750   W. Shenstone Elegies iv. 2   Near some lone fane or yew's funereal green.
1821   W. M. Craig Lect. Drawing iii. 176   Light-yellow has much clearness and beauty on purple and green.
1873   J. A. Symonds Stud. Greek Poets xii. 404   Its [sc. the olive's] pearly greys and softened greens.
1899   Daily News 16 Sept. 7/4   Lovely shades of green, such as grape, pistachio, and reed-green.
1901   Speaker 12 Jan. 396/2   The reds and lemons and greens of its [sc. Uppsala's] houses..form a charming bouquet of colour.
1947   Life 17 Nov. 141/1   Compotes made of confectioner's sugar and initialed ‘D.A.R’ in green.
1955   K. Hutton & A. Swallow Chem. for Gen. Sci. ix. 127   If a borax bead were tinged with bottle-green, what would you do to make it white again?
2008   New Yorker 25 Feb. 74/3   Shot in sullen browns and greens, ‘Miller's Crossing’ begins as a rapturous Bertoluccian piece of filmmaking.

?c1225—2008(Hide quotations)

 

 b. Roman History. One of the factions (faction n.1 2c) in the Circus, who adopted green as their distinctive colour; (in plural) the adherents of this faction.

1693   W. Congreve tr. Juvenal in J. Dryden et al. tr. Juvenal Satires xi. 232   The Green, have won the Honour of the Day [L. eventum viridis quo colligo panni].
1734   tr. C.-L. de S. de Montesquieu Refl. Causes Declension Romans xx. 162   The Blews were in no Apprehension of the Laws..and the Greens began to disregard them.
1884   19th Cent. Dec. 999   What light is thrown on the history of Byzantium by talking of the ‘Blues’ and the ‘Greens’?
1912   H. S. Jones Compan. Rom. Hist. v. 358   The favour of..the emperors who were infected with this passion was usually bestowed upon the Greens; the fashion was set by Caligula, who, as we are told, caused the horses of the rival factions to be poisoned.
2001   J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz Decline & Fall Rom. City vi. 212   The Greens refused to help him on the grounds that he was a notorious supporter of the Blues.

1693—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 c. The emblematic colour of Ireland (cf. Green Island n. at Compounds 1d(a)), and hence of the Irish nationalist cause.

1770   G. Baretti Journey London to Genoa III. lxi. 187   The habit of students in most universities is black; but in this each college is distinguished by a particular colour. That of the Irish is green.
1797   Shan van Vocht (song)    What colour should be seen Where our fathers' homes have been, But our own immortal Green?
c1798   Wearing of the Green (song)    They are hanging men and women for the wearing of the green.
c1798   Hope in R. R. Madden Lit. Remains United Irishmen (1887) 99   We fell to work, hammer and tongs, The Orange and Green both together.
1845   T. Davies in Songs of Ireland 186   Over many a noble town, and many a field of dead, They proudly set the Irish Green above the English Red.
1886   Academy 30 Oct. 291/3   The cover of this book, half of it of Nationalist green and the other half of Protestant orange, is a strange commentary on the virulence of party feeling.
1969   D. Niland Dead Men Running iii. 82   This is Joey Emmett—he's one of us, he's got the green in him.
2007   New Yorker 19 Mar. 150/2   The hilly landscapes are lovely without being picturesque (none of the travel-ad Irish green).

1770—2007(Hide quotations)

 

 5. Green clothing or dress (literal and figurative); †green cloth (obsolete). Also in plural: green dresses or other items of clothing; a green uniform.Lincoln green: see the first element.

a1250  (?c1200)    Hali Meiðhad (Titus) (1940) l. 648 (MED)   Ase wel vnder grei as under Grene & gra, ha luteð i þe heorte.
c1330  (?a1300)    Sir Tristrem (1886) l. 1380 (MED)   A schip wiþ grene and gray, Wiþ vair and eke wiþ griis.
c1430  (c1395)    G. Chaucer Legend Good Women (Cambr. Gg.4.27) (1879) Prol. l. 117   Now hadde the tempre sonne..clothede hym [sc. the earth] in grene al newe a-geyn.
a1450  (c1412)    T. Hoccleve De Regimine Principum (Harl. 4866) (1897) l. 696   Where be my gounes of scarlet,..blewes sadde & lighte, Grenes also, and þe fayre violet?
c1450  (?a1400)    Parl. Thre Ages (BL Add. 31042) l. 122 (MED)   He was gerede alle in grene, alle with golde by-weuede.
1455   in Rec. Parl. Scotl. to 1707 (2007) 1455/8/13   That all men of lawe that ar forspekaris for the cost haif habitis of grene.
a1500  (a1400)    Ipomedon (Chetham) (1889) l. 4006   A hunter all in grene.
1560–1   in R. Adam Edinb. Rec. (1899) II. 121   Thre elnis and ane half of Frenche grein to covre the ministers burd.
1673   R. Leigh Transproser Rehears'd 112   Would not exchange his royal purple for a forresters green.
a1700   Little Musgrave in J. Ritson Sel. Coll. Eng. Songs (1783) II. 215   The one of them was clad in green, The other was clad in pall.
1774   J. Bennet Poems Several Occasions 38   The grassy plain, so sprightly cloath'd in green, And flow'ry mead, no longer can be seen.
1810   G. Crabbe Borough xi. 156   He once was seen A Squire's Attendant, clad in Keeper's Green.
1895   T. Hardy Jude vi. xi. 512   On the opposite side of the river, on the crowded barges, were gorgeous nosegays of feminine beauty, fashionably arrayed in green, pink, blue, and white.
1927   J. Buchan Witch Wood xv. 258   She was dressed all in green, with a kirtle which scarcely reached her ankles and left her foot in the stirrup clear.
1986   H. Engel City called July (1987) vii. 78   I could see him in his operating-room greens worrying about a parking ticket.
1994   Malahat Rev. Spring 9   Some belled goats forage by a white cottage, tended by a girl in green.

a1250—1994(Hide quotations)

 
 6. In plural.

 a. The green parts, esp. the leaves, of a plant or flower. Now chiefly in turnip greens n. at turnip n. Compounds 2, or as merging into senses B. 6c   or B. 6d.

c1450  (?c1425)    E. Hull tr. Seven Psalms (1995) 37   God..aperyd in many maners as in þe flamme of fyre in þe myddyl of a bosche, whiche fyre wastyd not þe bosche neþer þe grenys of þe bosche.
c1600   Acct.-bk. W. Wray in Antiquary (1896) 32 80   Take the leaues of Blew violetes seperated from theire stalkes and grenes.
1620   G. Markham Farewell to Husbandry (1668) ii. xvii. 84   That the wind and Sun may get into it, and dry the greens more sufficiently.
1770   L. Carter Diary 13 Feb. (1965) I. 356   A prodigious stock of peashaving greens etc.
1781   G. White Jrnl. 14 Oct. (1970) xiv. 196   The greens of turnips wither.
1818   W. Cobbett Year's Resid. U.S.A. (1819) ii. viii. 305   My hogs are now living wholly upon Swedish turnip greens.
1854   J. Blundell in Cottage Gardener 1 Dec. 164/2   I will also take the greens of a crop of Carrots, at 6 tons per acre, value 4s. 6d. per ton—27s.
1907   Alabama Med. Jrnl. 19 151   There is one question that I have been paying a good deal of attention to..in ulcerated bowels and dysentery, and that is feeding patients on turnip greens.
1993   Albuquerque (New Mexico) Jrnl. 4 Feb. b3/2   Turnip greens..should be bright with little or no yellowing or shriveling.

c1450—1993(Hide quotations)

 

b. = duckweed n.   Cf. grain n.1 4c. Obsolete. rare.

1526   Grete Herball cclviii. sig. P.i   De lentycula aque. Grenes, or ducke meate.
1884   W. Miller Dict. Eng. Names Plants 58/2   Greens, Lemna minor.

1526—1884(Hide quotations)

 

 c. Green vegetables or other plants used to feed animals. Now rare.

1607   E. Topsell Hist. Foure-footed Beastes 111   When they [sc. rabbits] eat greenes they must not drinke at all, for if they do, it is hazzard but they will incurre the Dropsie.
1675   J. Blagrave New Additions Art Husbandry (new ed.) 111   When you perceive them [sc. canaries] begin to build and carry stuff, give them once a day, or in two days at least, a little Greens, and some Loaf-Sugar.
1727   P. Longueville Hermit 192   Finding by the greens in its mouth it was not a beast of prey.
1863   H. P. Leland Americans in Rome iv. 82   One of them [sc. donkeys], ambitious of distinction, began clambering over the tops of the others in an insane attempt to get at some greens, temptingly displayed before him.
1978   W. Wharton Birdy (1980) 155   I go into the aviary with..dandelion greens or apple, things they like.

1607—1978(Hide quotations)

 

 d. colloquial. Green vegetables used for food. Also occasionally in singular.Sometimes referring to specific types of green vegetable, esp. leafy varieties of brassica; cf. spring greens n. at spring n.1 Compounds 3e(a).

1710   E. Ward Nuptial Dialogues & Deb. II. v. 86   One Spoonful more of Greens, my Dear, Eat freely, Love, and never fear..I know you like a Bit by th' by, That's hot and hot, as well as I.
1745   R. James Medicinal Dict. II. at Spinache   Spinache, which is now so celebrated and useful a Green, seems unmention'd and unknown to the Antients.
1748   B. Robins & R. Walter Voy. round World by Anson ii. iii. 141   Greens, as wild celery, nettle-tops, etc.
1783   F. Burney Diary 13 Jan. (1842) II. 277   At Mr. Garrick's table, [he] called out to a very timid young woman to help him to some greens.
1816   W. Scott Antiquary III. vi. 121   A few half-cold greens and potatoes.
1843   J. Pereira Treat. Food & Diet 382   The Cabbage Tribe includes the Cabbage (both white and red), the Savoy, Greens, the Cauliflower, and Broccoli.
1852   G. A. Sala in Househ. Words 18 Dec. 315/1   A colossal amalgamation of cabbages, known in the precincts of the Brill, Somers Town..as a ‘green’.
1861   P. B. Du Chaillu Explor. Equatorial Afr. 125   The leaves [of the manioc]..make excellent ‘greens’.
1904   P. White Triumph Mrs. St. George viii   Here was a real live soldier..eating mutton, potatoes, and greens—the usual Thursday stodge!—along with a lot of kids!
1906   Gardeners' Chron. 6 Oct. 250/1   It was agreed that no true test of the merits of any one variety [of kale] as a winter green could be furnished until the winter was well advanced.
?a1958   F. B. Farris From Rattlesnakes to Road Agents (1985) 11   It is surprising how many of the wild plants were good to eat. One of them was poke greens, which came up very early in the spring and tasted quite delicious.
2009   Guardian 12 Sept. (Travel section) 4/4   A farmhouse supper (greens from the vegetable garden and their own beef).

1710—2009(Hide quotations)

 

 e. slang. Sexual activity, esp. intercourse.Frequently in to get one's greens and variants, with implication of something which is (like vegetables in the diet) needed regularly.

1846   ‘Lord Chief Baron’ Swell's Night Guide (new ed.) 63   She kept the greens, for very few she sold; And, as her customers, the greens refuse, Why, then, the greens gave this fair maid the blues.
c1890   Stag Party   For Sairy gets her Bottomfelt, John Henry gets his Greens.
1893   J. S. Farmer & W. E. Henley Slang III. 206/1   To have, get, or give one's greens, to enjoy, procure, or confer the sexual favour. Said indifferently of both sexes.
1963   L. Meynell Virgin Luck vii. 164   Mr. Cahill..is an adult male with healthy instincts. He wants his greens regularly.
1967   G. Greene May we borrow your Husband? 27   Why not go after the girl?.. She's not getting what I believe is vulgarly called her greens.
1996   A. Theroux Secondary Colors 259   To have, get or give one's greens, used for both sexes, is generally a slang phrase for heterosexual intercourse, meaning to enjoy, procure, or confer sexual favors.

1846—1996(Hide quotations)

 

 7. A green pigment or dye.chrome, malachite, mountain, Paris, sap, Scheele's green, etc.: see the first element.For green as a colour, see sense B. 4a.

1582   S. Batman Vppon Bartholome, De Proprietatibus Rerum xix. f. 393v   The Indiae, if it be not too much counterfeit, is the especiall grounde of greenes.
1611   R. Cotgrave Dict. French & Eng. Tongues at Chevre   Verd de chevre, a kind of sand whereof Painters make their greenes.
1733   School of Miniature 34   In working thereon with Green, it constantly weakens the Red which had first been laid on.
1879   H. Watts Dict. Chem. I. 949   Chromic oxide..forming one of the most permanent greens, called chrome-green.
1968   V. B. Mountcastle et al. Med. Physiol. (ed. 12) I. vi. 94/2   Dyes such as indocyanine green are the compounds most frequently used.
2001   P. Ball Bright Earth vii. 176   In England this pigment was called viridian. The Impressionists adored it, and it is Cezanne's definitive green.

1582—2001(Hide quotations)

 

 8. In plural = green sickness n. 1. rare. Now historical.

1719   T. D'Urfey Wit & Mirth I. 313   The Maiden..that's vex'd with her Greens.
1961   Shakespeare Q. 12 49   Before deciding whether or not Falstaff could have had ‘the greens’, one would do well to examine the plays of Shakespeare wherein Falstaff is not mentioned for references to the sickness.

1719—1961(Hide quotations)

 

9. A seton. Cf. sense A. 7b. Obsolete. rare.

1781   P. Beckford Thoughts on Hunting viii. 115   A green, or seton, in the neck, is of great relief in most disorders of the eyes.

1781—1781(Hide quotations)

 

10. Short for green man n. 1a   or Jack in the green n. 1. Obsolete. rare.

1836   C. Dickens Sketches by Boz 2nd Ser. 336   For some few years ago the dancing on May-day began to decline; small sweeps were observed to congregate in twos or threes, unsupported by a ‘green’.

1836—1836(Hide quotations)

 

 11. In plural. In sugar manufacture: = green syrup n. at Compounds 1d(a).

1867   C. D. Braun in Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie 6 463 (table)    Grüner Syrup (greens).
1871   Bowdoin Sci. Rev. 17 Jan. 399   The last greens, after three successive crystallizations of sugar, are purified and sold as ‘golden syrup’.
1913   Louisiana Planter & Sugar Manufacturer 51 37/1   Gravity Filters No. 2—These serve all products in the..work of the ‘boiling’ house such as thick juice, high and low wash and greens and melted sugar.
1977   G. P. Meade & J. C. P. Chen Cane Sugar Handbk. (ed. 10) 428   The ‘run-off’ (or ‘greens’) from this last boiling is the standard ‘final molasses’.

1867—1977(Hide quotations)

 

 12. In snooker and similar games: a green ball; (also) an attempt to pot a green ball.

1889   A. W. Drayson Art Pract. Billiards 110   The pink is placed on the spot in the centre of the table; the blue on the left spot of the baulk; the green in the centre of baulk.
1935   Encycl. Sports, Games & Pastimes 570/1   Brown on the middle of the baulk line; green on the left, and yellow on the right.
1946   Manch. Guardian 20 May 3/3   He took the yellow but failed on a very difficult green which hovered in the jaws of the pocket.
1984   Observer 6 May 35/3   He attempted an incredibly difficult green to the middle pocket.
1998   Pot Black Mag. Feb. 42/1   Both players had chances in the last but Fisher got control with a 24, fluking a green into the yellow pocket from the far middle knuckle.

1889—1998(Hide quotations)

 

 13. Theatre.  [Apparently short for rhyming slang greengage n. 2.] The stage, esp. in on the green.

1937   E. Partridge Dict. Slang 352/1   Green, stage: theatrical.
1940   Notes & Queries 29 June 462/2   ‘On the Green’ is perfectly good rhyming slang for ‘On the Greengage’ = on the stage. As such, it is familiar to every touring actor, stage-door keeper and stage-hand of over forty, and is in constant use to-day.
1957   Times Lit. Suppl. 6 Dec. 742/1   If a modern producer asks his stage-manager to summon down a man from the flies, we might well hear the cry: ‘Bill, come down on the green a minute.’
1987   Daily Tel. 1 May 12/4   The old managers used to lay a green-baize cloth on the stage for performances, hence the saying, which I recall in use by the older generation of players when I was an absolute beginner, of seeing you ‘on the green’.

1937—1987(Hide quotations)

 

 14. Particle Physics.  [An arbitrary choice of one colour of a set of three, analogous to the three primary colours.] One of the three quark colours (colour n.1 24).Cf. earlier blue adj. 12.

1975   F. E. Close in Acta Physica Polonica B. 6 789   Each of these quarks can come in three colours red, blue, or green.
1989   U. Mosel Fields, Symmetries, & Quarks ix. 156   r, g and b stand for the three colours (‘red’, ‘green’ and ‘blue’) and f represents the flavour index u, d, s etc.
2005   M. Livio Equation that couldn't be Solved vii. 220   Each quark flavor comes in three different colors, conventionally called red, green, and blue.

1975—2005(Hide quotations)

 

 15. In plural. Also with capital initial. The members or supporters of an environmentalist political party; supporters of environmentalism, esp. as a political issue. Cf. sense A. 13.In early use particularly associated with the environmentalist party in West Germany (die Grünen).

1978   Economist 14 Jan. 39/2   The Greens are more likely to take votes from the Social Democrats and the Liberals than from the Christian Democrats.
1982   New Society 22 July 129/1   Die Grünen in Germany: a federation of broad interests forged..from three major citizen action groups... British greens believe such a federation is possible..here.
1983   Times 24 Feb. 17/8   It has to be recognized that the world's economic story is now developing in a manner that goes the Greens' way.
1986   New Socialist Sept. 4/2   If the government's greens..get their way, then the pollution from Drax B may yet be cleaned up.
2007   Guardian 5 May 7/5   The Lib Dems and perhaps the Greens, or even Tories, will promise to support the ruling party.

1978—2007(Hide quotations)

 

Phrases

 P1. in the green tree  [after Luke 23:31, post-classical Latin in viridi ligno (Vulgate), Hellenistic Greek ἐν τῷ ὑγρῷ ξύλῳ] : under conditions of ease or plenty.

OE (Northumbrian)   Lindisf. Gospels: Luke xxiii. 31   Quia si in uiridi ligno haec faciunt,in arido quid fiet : forðon uel gif in groene tree ðas doað in drygi uel in alde huæd bið uel worðes?
OE   West Saxon Gospels: Luke (Corpus Cambr.) xxiii. 31   Forþam gif hig on grenum treowe þas þing doð, hwæt doð hig on þam drigean?
c1384   Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) (Douce 369(2)) (1850) Luke xxiii. 31   If thei don thes thingis in a grene tree, what schal be don in a drye?
a1400  (a1325)    Cursor Mundi (Gött.) l. 16663 (MED)   Quen suilk in grene tre es wroght, in dri sal mikel mare.
a1450  (a1400)    Medit. Life & Passion of Christ (BL Add.) (1921) l. 1805   Ihesu seyde..‘Siþþe þei don þus in grene tre, Whan it sereþ how shal it be?’
1617   J. Hales Serm. 11   The dangerous effects of this haue appeared, not in the greene tree only, in young heads, but in men of constant age, and great place in the Church.
1873   W. Bagehot Lombard St. x. 273   That which happened so marvelously in the green tree may happen also in the dry.
1890   W. E. Norris Adrian Vidal xiv   If this was done in the green tree, what would be done in the dry?
1919   R. M. MacIver Labor in Changing World ii. 35   If these things happened in the green tree of abundant employment at good wages.., what shall be done now in the dry?
2009   T. Cahill Saint on Death Row vi. 129   If they do this in the green tree of Pennsylvania, the racially stacked juries of dry-tree Texas should come as no surprise.

OE—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

 P2. green old age: an old age that is full of vitality.

1634   T. Johnson tr. A. Paré Chirurg. Wks. i. v. 10   Those we say are beginning to grow old, or in their greene old-age.
1766   O. Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield I. xiv. 134   His green old age seemed to be the result of health and benevolence.
1855   T. B. Macaulay Hist. Eng. III. xiv. 413   In youth his habits had been temperate; and his temperance had its proper reward, a singularly green and vigorous old age.
1989   J. Purdy Garments Living Wear xi. 52   First there was green old age, hardly different from middle age.

1634—1989(Hide quotations)

 

 P3. Golf. through the green: on or along the whole area of the course, except for the putting green, the teeing ground of the hole being played, and the course hazards. rare.Used chiefly in descriptions of the rules of the game or course.

1783   in C. B. Clapcott Rules of Golf (1935) 33   If a Ball, in playing thro' the Green, be stopt by the Player's partner.., it shall be played where it chance to ly.
1899   Spalding's Official Golf Guide 83   If the player's ball move the opponent's ball through the green, the opponent..may drop a ball (without Penalty) as near as possible to the place where it lay.
2005   B. Elliot Dobereiner's Golf Rules Explained (ed. 11) ii. 50   If your ball becomes so badly damaged that it is unfit for play,..you must place a ball during play through the green instead of dropping.

1783—2005(Hide quotations)

 
 

P4. to keep the bones green : to maintain good health. Obsolete.

1813   E. Picken Misc. Poems II. 41   Tak' a skair, O' what may keep the banes just green.
1823   W. Scott St. Ronan's Well I. x. 240   Ye might..have gotten..a Commissaryship..to keep the banes green.

1813—1823(Hide quotations)

 
 P5.

 a. colloquial. to see anything green in one's eye and variants: to detect any signs of gullibility in a person. Cf. to see any green in one's eye at Phrases 5b. Now rare.

1838   Bentley's Misc. 4 177   ‘Do you see anything green in my eye?’ suddenly remarked Mr. Cumming. ‘Oh! la! what do you mean?’ responded Miss Julia.
1851   H. Mayhew London Labour II. 41/2   I'm not a tailor, but I understands about clothes, and I believe that no person ever saw anything green in my eye.
1863   C. Reade Hard Cash xxiv   Do—you—see—anything—green—in this here eye?
1919   Overland Monthly Dec. 417/1   Bill went quite close to the man, pulled down an eye-lid, and asked: ‘Do you see anything green in my eye?’

1838—1919(Hide quotations)

 

 b. to see any green in one's eye : to detect any indication of inexperience or gullibility (frequently in rhetorical questions). Similarly there is no green in one's eye .

1842   Tait's Edinb. Mag. July 431/1   The men..now inquired, with expressive gestures, whether he saw any green in their eyes.
1859   J. C. Hotten Dict. Slang (at cited word)   ‘Do you see any green in my eye?’ ironical question in a dispute.
1883   G. D. Atkin House Scraps (1887) 161   Major P——'s unco' sly, There is no green about his eye.
1894   R. D. Blackmore Perlycross II. iii. 50   Sergeant, do you see any green in my eye?
1936   F. Clune Roaming round Darling xxii. 219   The governor, however, hadn't any green in his eye, so in despair Andy smuggled a letter to Dr John Dunmore Lang.
1966   O. Norton School of Liars vi. 106   ‘You don't have to believe all you hear.’.. He leant forward and pulled down his lower eyelid. ‘See any green, Mrs Sumner?’
2000   Evening Chron. (Newcastle) (Nexis) 13 Apr. 31   ‘There is no green in my eye’ was once a common retort to something said that didn't ring true.

1842—2000(Hide quotations)

 
 

 P6. green around (also about, at, in) the gills : (of a person) looking or feeling ill or nauseated. Cf. gill n.1 2a.

1843   C. Dickens Let. 13 Oct. (1974) III. 580   I am at this moment deaf in the ears, hoarse in the throat, red in the nose, green in the gills,..and fractious in the temper from a most intolerable and oppressive cold.
1862   R. H. Newell Orpheus C. Kerr Papers I. 237   ‘Yer may take it for $250.’ ‘He turned green about the gills at that.’
1939   N.Y. Times 14 July 12/3   She stood by the rail an hour or more and then staggered down the gangplank... ‘Little green at the gills, she was,’ said our nautical informant.
1959   R. G. McCullough Fresh out of Wings 154   Miss Mama felt green about the gills to think what the result would be.
1991   New Age Jrnl. Apr. 60/2   [With] 110 pesticides in nonorganic raisins,..it's a wonder that Junior doesn't come home looking green around the gills.
2004   M. Cabot Boy meets Girl 169   ‘It must be the champagne,’ I said lamely, because I didn't want to admit that it was the sight of my boss that had caused me to go green around the gills.

1843—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 

 P7. in the green: while in leaf; in the period of youthful growth or vigour. Cf. in the green tree at Phrases 1, and sense A. 10.

1850   Ld. Tennyson In Memoriam lxxiii. 102   Thy leaf has perish'd in the green .  
1886   C. H. Parkhurst Serm. 15 May in W. F. Crafts Sabbath for Man 267   All disobedience is anarchy, young anarchy, anarchy in the green.
1904   L. I. Guiney Robert Emmet 63   It reminds us what a network of beneficent will and forethought made up that intense nature, and how the perishing leaf was but in the green.
2008   N.Y. Times (National ed.) 3 Apr. d7/5   And when clumps get too dense, it's best to move them ‘in the green’, she said, referring to the time after the plants flower, while the leaves are still green.

1850—2008(Hide quotations)

 
 

 P8. green with envy (also jealousy) : extremely envious.

1863   C. Reade Hard Cash xliii   The doctor was turning almost green with jealousy.
1881   Daily Tel. 5 July 2/2   Superbly modelled craft, whose lines would have made the old Baltimore clipper-builders green with envy.
1935   Daily News (Frederick, Maryland) 30 Aug. 4/2   My new bucket hat has made her green with envy.
1948   Billboard 7 Feb. 45/1   Milton Berle's $15,000 for four days at the Miami Copa..is making other acts green with jealousy.
1972   G. M. Brown Greenvoe (1976) v. 180   His sermons were great... I was as green as the tree in the manse garden with envy.
2006   G. Malkani Londonstani i. 3   An eloquence..that made me green with envy.

1863—2006(Hide quotations)

 

 P9. to be not as green as one is cabbage-looking and variants: to be less of a fool than one might appear.

1882   Southern Argus (Goulburn, Austral.) 30 Sept. 4/1   The moral which the splitter extracted from the experience was to the effect that a man is not necessarily green because he is cabbage looking.
1898   Westm. Gaz. 3 Nov. 4/1   I said I knew 'ow many beans made 5..and if I wor cabbage-looking I woren't green.
1922   J. Joyce Ulysses ii. 299   Gob, he's not as green as he's cabbagelooking.
2002   J. McGahern That they may face Rising Sun (2003) 156   ‘He wants to buy the place if he's able.’‘Aha... He's not as green as he's cabbage-looking.’

1882—2002(Hide quotations)

 

Compounds

 C1. Compounds of the adjective.
 a.
 (a) Parasynthetic.Some of the following could be construed as instrumental compounds of the noun.
 

  green-backed adj.

1757   J. Hill Eden lvii. 679 (heading)    Green back'd Ornithogalum.
1792   M. Riddell Voy. Madeira 77   The green-backed cavally (gasterosteus Carolinus Lin.).
1890   L. Ensor tr. A. Daudet Jack iii. vii. 621   This little dingy shop, full of mouldy-smelling, green-backed books.
1911   Z. Grey Young Pitcher vii. 81   You green-backed freshman! Shut up! You scrub!
1999   Boat Angler (Special ed.) May 62/2   Sometimes even those green-backed, butter-bellied summer cod..will show.

1757—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-bodied adj.

1772   J. Fielding Let. 4 Nov. in Jrnl. Proc. J. Hewitt of Coventry (1790) sig. **4   The man shot by the Captain..had on a blue or green bodied coat, and a drab coloured surtout coat.
1839   R. Reeve in Mem. (1898) I. 104   A neat green-bodied glass chariot.
1918   W. Beebe Jungle Peace vi. 128   A green-bodied, green-legged grasshopper of good size.
2006   D. Emmett & G. Nice Understanding Street Drugs i. vii. 171   This solvent is contained in the green-bodied fire extinguishers that are still found in some commercial premises.

1772—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-bordered adj.

1765   W. Stevenson Orig. Poems I. 243   Before the door..Beds of selected flow'rs green-border'd lie.
1891   C. T. C. James Romantic Rigmarole 22   The green-bordered road was white with dust.
2005   Security Managem. Dec. 54   If you receive an attachment in an e-mail and click on it, a green-bordered box will open.

1765—2005(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-boughed adj.

1776   W. J. Mickle tr. L. de Camoens Lusiad 257   The green-boughed forests by the lawns of Thames.
1892   Ann. Rep. Minnesota State Hort. Soc. 20 78   The green-boughed pine, cedar, spruce, balsam and other evergreens.
1999   Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Nexis) 13 Feb. b1   A green-boughed cedar that was barely singed.

1776—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-breasted adj.

a1644   F. Quarles Solomons Recantation (1645) ii. 46   Teach her to slide..through the fluid veynes Of the green breasted stream-embroydred Plaines.
1797   G. Humphreys Museum Calonnianum viii. 77   Alcedo—Green-breasted King's Fisher.
1871   T. Bracken Behind Tomb 82   The isle of sorrow and of mirth, Green-breasted Innisfail.
1991   P. Matthiessen Afr. Silences iii. 138   The same brilliant color..flares again in the rump and tail of a green-breasted pitta.

a1644—1991(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-capped adj.

1832   Christian Examiner & Church of Ireland Mag. May 341   From the tops of her green-capped hills.
1965   G. McInnes Road to Gundagai x. 154   I saw..some green-capped boys marching.
2009   N.Y. Times (Nexis) 20 May d1   Huy Fong's trademark green-capped clear plastic squeeze bottles.

1832—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-coloured   adj.

1592   R. Dallington tr. F. Colonna Hypnerotomachia f.14v   A mightie Obeliske of greene couloured stone of Lacedemonia.
1707   H. Sloane Voy. Islands I. 188   From the midst of these rises a round, smooth, straight, fresh, green coloured, three or four Foot long Stalk.
1881   Med. & Surg. Reporter 6 Aug. 162/1   He had eaten a portion of a green-colored crayon.
2002   M. Cronin & D. Adair Wearing of Green 166   Plastic green hats, green-coloured beer, cheap souvenirs and gaudy marketing have been part and parcel of America's St Patrick's Day.

1592—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-curtained adj.

1824   Literary Magnet 2 196   Your anonymous, humble servant, established in a green-curtained box.
1929   D. Hammett Red Harvest i. 9   The green-curtained booths that lined the wall opposite the bar.
2008   Metro (Nexis) 15 Dec. 27   A green-curtained doorway.

1824—2008(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-decked adj.

1582   R. Stanyhurst tr. Virgil First Foure Bookes Æneis iii. 48   From thence wee trauayled to the greenedeckt gaylye Donysa [L. viridemque Donusam].
1848   F. W. Taylor Broad Pennant xiii. 357   How go our hearts to the green-decked temples of worship.
1995   M. Amis Information (1996) 427   Snooker halls, with their darkness, their pyramids of light over the green-decked slabs of lead.

1582—1995(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-edged adj.

1779   T. Forrest Voy. New Guinea i. x. 149   There are before the wings two roundish tufts of feathers, which are green edged, and may be moved at pleasure.
1857   H. Watts tr. L. Gmelin Hand-bk. Chem. XI. 65   Nitrate of amyl burns with a faint green-edged flame.
1999   BBC Gardeners' World Apr. 130/3   Variations on the green-edged flowers began to appear.

1779—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-faced adj.

1632   W. Lithgow Totall Disc. Trav. x. 501   Greene-fac'd gardens, set at Florae's feet, Make Nature's beauty, quicke Appelles greet.
1824   J. Banim Revelations of Dead-alive iii. 33   The green-faced girl who looked in a terrified manner at me.
1916   H. G. Wells Mr. Britling sees it Through i. v. 138   Green-faced and pitiful under an anaesthetic.
2001   N. Griffiths Sheepshagger 256   Danny re-appears greenfaced with his hand to his mouth.

1632—2001(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-feathered adj.

1633   T. Johnson Gerard's Herball (new ed.) ii. 781   Paralysis flore viridi roseo calamistrato, The double greene feathered Cowslip.
1791   J. Townsend Journey Spain I. 17   Copper in blue crystals, with copper blossom and green feathered ore.
1875   Jrnl. Anthropol. Inst. 4 291   The old Mexican deity, Quetzalcoatl, whose name we are told signifies green-feathered serpent.
1998   P. McCabe Breakfast on Pluto (1999) xxxvii. 139   A green-feathered dart sailed expertly towards the measled corkboard.

1633—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-fringed adj.

1686   London Gaz. No. 2126/4   A..Saddle green-fring'd round the Seat.
1831   J. K. Paulding Dutchman's Fireside I. xii. 112   The crystal waters lay sleeping within the green-fringed curtains of their waving banks.
1902   E. Lawless With Wild Geese 70   On soft red claws, and tender, green-fringed spears.
2009   Weekend Austral. (Nexis) 14 Feb. (Features section) 16   Some of the people in these green-fringed, peri-urban areas are there because property prices are relatively low.

1686—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-garbed adj.

1808   W. Scott Marmion vi. Introd. 302   The green-garbed ranger.
1936   H. H. Parkhurst Cathedral i. iv. 82   The green-garbed figures which constitute the foliage of the symbolic tree.
2009   Boston Globe (Nexis) 16 Mar. b3 (headline)    Exuberant and green-garbed crowds partake in parade.

1808—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-glazed adj.

1712   Atlas Geographus III. 86/2   The Green Mosque, so call'd because its Steeple is fac'd and the Top cover'd with green glaz'd Bricks.
1891   J. E. Hodgkin & E. Hodgkin Examples Early Eng. Pott. Introd. 9   The Green-glazed Ware, with a buff body..is called Tudor ware.
2001   Oxoniensia 65 340   Speckled green-glazed jugs.

1712—2001(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-haired adj.

1625   T. Hawkins tr. Horace Odes iii. xviii. 60   With mutuall Songs, weele Neptune please, And the greene-hayrd Nereides.
1714   W. Salmon Ars Anatomica v. ii. 283/2   Bartholinus says he has seen Green-Hair'd Men at Hasnia.
1847   R. W. Emerson Poems 21   The green-haired forest.
1998   New Yorker 9 Nov. 90/2   A punkishly green-haired Ariel.

1625—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-hued adj.

▸ ?a1513   W. Dunbar Tua Mariit Wemen in Poems (1998) I. 41   Ane holyn hewinlie grein hewit.
1788   Monthly Rev. 78 App. 596   The other animal..is called by M. Vosmaer, Taupe verdâtre luisante, or Glossy green-hued Mole.
1849   J. Kenyon Day at Tivoli 111   Little waves, their white foams wreathing, The green-hued deeps were fleecing o'er.
1992   R. Kenan Let Dead bury their Dead iv. 77   A silvery-steel pan full of green-hued collard and mustard leaves.

?a1513—1992(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-hearted adj.

1641   J. Vicars tr. F. Herring November 5. 1605 14   Gray-headed, but green-hearted traitour right.
1853   C. Dickens Bleak House xxxvii. 366   He is such a cheery fellow... Fresh and green-hearted!
1913   A. Logan Princ. & Pract. School Gardening viii. 143   The only blooms to be had are undersized, ill-formed and often green-hearted.
2002   High Country News 14 Oct. 2/4   A more diverse menagerie of Westerners started appearing in these pages: green-hearted ranchers and blue-collar environmentalists.

1641—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-leafed adj.

1601   P. Holland tr. Pliny Hist. World I. xvi. xx. 469   It continueth alwaies green leafed, beareth flowers like roses, and brauncheth very thicke.
1805   R. Forsyth Beauties Scotl. I. 535   One-fifth or one-fourth part of the tillage lands is yearly in fallow or turnips; one-fifth or one-fourth under a green-leafed grass.
1906   E. Nesbit Story of Amulet 129   The children found themselves under a white-blossomed, green-leafed fruit-tree.
2009   Daily Tel. 4 Aug. 3/6   The farmers create the murals by planting purple and yellow-leafed kodaimai rice along with their local green-leafed tsugaru roman variety.

1601—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-leaved adj.

c1400  (?a1387)    W. Langland Piers Plowman (Huntington HM 137) (1873) C. xvii. l. 279   The bowes þat bereþ nat and beeþ nat grene-leuede.
1596   J. Norden Christian Familiar Comfort Ep. Ded.   Who looking vppon the greene leaued figge tree of our profession..findeth it not answerable to his expectation.
a1653   Z. Boyd Zion's Flowers (1855) 39   It will be still Greene leaved.
1786   J. Abercrombie Gardener's Pocket Dict. II. 53   Varieties:..Green-leaved red Beet.
1861   A. Pratt Flowering Plants & Ferns Great Brit. IV. 61   Green-leaved Hound's-tongue.
1990   Garden Answers Nov. 52/3   The green leaved varieties of leaf beet are quite striking.

c1400—1990(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-legged adj.

1678   J. Ray tr. F. Willughby Ornithol. 299   The green-leg'd Horseman.
1804   Jrnl. 22 Sept. in Hist. Exped. Lewis & Clarke (1817) II. App. 604   A little foggy this morning: a great number of green-legged plover are passing down the river.
1911   J. L. Hancock Nature Sketches Temperate Amer. 406   The green-legged species is very inconspicuous.
2003   Omaha (Nebraska) World-Herald (Nexis) 3 Oct. 1 a   Corn Cob Man, the green-legged hero during his school days in the early 1960s.

1678—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-mantled adj.

1591   A. Fraunce Countesse of Pembrokes Yuychurch sig. C2   By the greene-mantled pastures and watery fountaines Lou's yong wanton waggs were always woont to be singing.
1654   T. Blount Acad. Eloquence 47   The Pine-plow'd sea. The Green-mantled earth.
1834   T. Carlyle Sartor Resartus iii. viii. 94/2   A huge Troglodyte Chasm, with frightful green-mantled pools.
1916   B. Carman April Airs 28   When green-mantled spring shall come Past thy door with flute and drum.
2007   Sunday Tel. (Nexis) 25 Nov. (Sport section) 7   This beautiful stadium, ringed by Kandy's green-mantled hills, is full of fond memories.

1591—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-painted adj.

1712   Daily Courant 14 Mar.   Inquire at the said House, being next to the Green Painted Door in the said Square.
1869   R. F. Burton Explor. Highlands Brazil I. 22   The surroundings are a tall slip-shed, a taller black-shed, fronted by a..green-painted crane.
1903   N.Y. Times 31 Oct. 9/5   Of interest to the woman who keeps a good many plants in a small space is a watering pot of ordinary green-painted tin.
2000   T. Clancy Bear & Dragon xxiii. 340   He'd glued a metal plate to the bottom of the green-painted wood.

1712—2000(Hide quotations)

 

green-recessed adj. Obsolete rare

1820   J. Keats Lamia i, in Lamia & Other Poems 11   Into the green-recessed woods they flew.

1820—1820(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-ribbed adj.

1777   J. Lightfoot Flora Scotica II. 663   [Asplenium viride] Green-ribb'd Maidenhair. Anglis.
1796   W. Withering Arrangem. Brit. Plants (ed. 3) III. 308   Green-ribbed Spleenwort.
1855   Chambers's Edinb. Jrnl. 28 Apr. 260/1   Its green-ribbed calyx and lower growth.
1900   New Eng. Mag. June (Book notes) 2/2   A daisy chain in colors encircles the lovely green-ribbed cover.
1993   Your Garden May 64/1   Use a sprinkler hose such as Hozelock's green-ribbed, PVC lay-flat version.

1777—1993(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-seeded adj.

1831   Naturalist 1 342   The green seeded [cotton] is equally or more productive in the upper country, and according to soil, seed and care, the acre produces from 60 to 300 pounds of clean cotton wool.
1934   J. A. Thomson & E. J. Holmyard Biol. for Everyman I. i. 7   We say ‘as like as two peas’, but one pea in a pod may develop into a tall, yellow-seeded plant and its neighbour into a dwarf, green-seeded plant.
2006   Chicago Daily Herald (Nexis) 29 Jan. (Home & Garden) 1   Green-seeded soybeans, called edamame, make a delicious high-protein snack.

1831—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-shaded adj.

1762   J. Macpherson Fingal v. 63   Rocks tumble from their places on high; the green-shaded bushes are overturned.
1866   E. J. Worboise Sir Julian's Wife xiv. 200   And with her customary docility she had done exactly as she was bidden: lying down in the cool green-shaded drawing-room; not reading, and trying not to think.
1909   Westm. Gaz. 15 May 6/2   A green~shaded city nestling oasis-like in its arena.
2008   P. Hensher Northern Clemency 535   She sat in the warm pool of light cast by the green-shaded Tiffany lamp.

1762—2008(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-shadowed adj.

a1625   J. Fletcher Noble Gentleman ii. i, in F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher Comedies & Trag. (1647) 31   Free from the clamour of the troubled Court, We may enjoy our own greene shadowed walkes.
1854   ‘G. Greenwood’ Haps & Mishaps 19   Every hill & green~shadowed vale..spoke to my heart.
1955   P. Larkin Less Deceived 36   Green-shadowed people sit, or walk in rings.
2007   St. Petersburg (Florida) Times (Nexis) 16 Nov. a17   His milieu is the green-shadowed swamps and tar-paper shacks tourists never see.

a1625—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-sheathed adj.

1825   Philos. Mag. 66 281   A. (green-sheathed narrow-leaved).
1832   Ld. Tennyson Lady of Shalott i, in Poems (new ed.) 8   The greensheathèd daffodilly.
1996   Star Tribune (Minneapolis) (Nexis) 17 May b1   Julie..and Becky..were to drive the green-sheathed car.

1825—1996(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-striped adj.

1652   N. Culpeper Eng. Physitian (new ed.) 27   Each of them [sc. campions] standing in large green striped hairy Husks, large and round below next to the Stalk.
1710   London Gaz. No. 4786/4   A green strip'd Poplin Mantua and Petticoat, lined with a white Antherine.
1870   W. Morris Earthly Paradise I. i. 191   Greenstriped onions.
1990   Great Hospitality Sept. 71/2   Tables are set with pink linens over green-striped skirts.

1652—1990(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-suited adj.

1859   Ld. Tennyson Guinevere in Idylls of King 226   All the court Green-suited, but with plumes that mock'd the may, Had been, their wont, a-maying.
1997   D. Johnson Le Divorce 165   A green-suited street worker who made me sit back down.

1859—1997(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-throated adj.

1776   Catal. Birds in Edwards's Nat. Hist. IV. 12   Red breasted and green throated humming birds.
1861   J. Gould Monogr. Trochilidæ II   Delattria viridipallens, Green-throated Cazique.
1991   Shepherd's Garden Seeds Catal. 32/1   Heat-resistant new Verano is a classic Batavian-style lettuce with green-throated wavy leaves, tender-crisp hearts and succulent crunchy texture.

1776—1991(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-tinged adj.

?1770   W. J. Mickle tr. L. de Camoens First Bk. Lusiad 29   Unplow'd before, the green-ting'd billows rose, And curl'd and whiten'd round the nodding prows.
1870   Atlantic Monthly Dec. 712/1   A few stunted shrubs, which quiver in the heat, like green-tinged tongues of flame.
1955   B. C. L. Kemp Elem. Org. Chem. (new ed.) xxv. 318   An inflammable substance containing halogen often gives a green-tinged flame.
2007   Eve July 145/1   Every summer, we're inundated with questions on how to beat sun-frazzled frizz and green-tinged highlights.

?1770—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-tinted adj.

1806   C. Cuthbertson Santo Sebastiano IV. xv. 291   Swift his now green-tinted eyes darted towards the organ.
1928   Times 9 Feb. 17/4   They carried bouquets of green tinted orchids.
2000   S. Heighton Shadow Boxer iii. ii. 309   ‘Don't sweat yourself!’ he called, his eyes blurred behind big, green-tinted glasses.

1806—2000(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-topped adj.

1763   J. Mills New Syst. Pract. Husbandry III. 151   The red or purple topped, and the large green topped turneps.
1830   W. Withering Brit. Plants. (ed. 7) IV. 185   Large Green-topped Agaric.
1902   Boston Globe 18 Aug. 8/3   The green-topped mountains and the beautiful waters of Champlain and Memphremagog present a picture to the summer sojourner.
2008   P. Hensher Northern Clemency 535   She sat in the warm pool of light cast by the green-shaded Tiffany lamp over the green-topped leather desk.

1763—2008(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-turfed adj.

1759   J. Fortescue Diss., Ess. & Disc. I. 31   Hoary time, O'er moss-grown fragments, and the green-turf'd lands, Marks out the next.
1851   H. Melville Whale II. xii. 92   His green-turfed, flowery Nile.
1933   W. de la Mare Fleeting & Other Poems 101   Meek harebell hung her head Over the green-turfed chalk.
2007   Canberra Times (Nexis) 4 June a4   A neatly clipped expanse of green-turfed lawn offers no food or habitat for native butterflies.

1759—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-waved adj.

1764   Gen. Mag. Arts & Sci. Oct. 1113/2   The green-wav'd ocean with amazement roars.
c1826   Sir Patrick Spens xv, in F. J. Child Eng. & Sc. Pop. Ballads (1885) II. iii. 22/2   I see the green-waved sea.
1916   C. S. Yost Patience Worth 150   Afield the grasses glint, and breeze doth seeming set aflow the current o' a green-waved stream.
1994   R. J. Arobateau Laughter of Witch 12   We carry our freedom, perpetually. Eagle fast! Over the green waved bays.

1764—1994(Hide quotations)

 
 (b) Complementary.
 

green-dropping adj. Obsolete

1593   W. Shakespeare Venus & Adonis sig. Hv   She crop's the stalke, and in the breach appeares, Green-dropping sap, which she compares to teares.  
1691   T. D'urfey Pindarick Poem i. 1   Triumphant Neptune clear'd his stormy Brow, Curl'd his green dropping Locks.

1593—1691(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-glimmering adj.

1814   J. Hogg Hunting of Badlewe iii. iv. 81   She has..sung the hymns of God On yon green glimmering star.
1859   Ld. Tennyson Lancelot & Elaine 482 in Idylls of King   A wild wave..Green-glimmering toward the summit.
1966   E. Wilkins & E. Kaiser tr. R. Musil Five Women 49   Flames of a camp-fire rising..like a tree-trunk of golden dust in green-glimmering woodland.

1814—1966(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-growing adj.

1780   in J. Smith Galic Antiq. 214   On either side, a fair branch lifted its green-growing head.
1841   H. W. Longfellow Children Lord's Supper 81   E'en as the green-growing bud is unfolded when spring-tide approaches.
1999   Bismarck (N. Dakota) Tribune (Nexis) 21 Nov. a4   Beautiful, healthy, green-growing grass not only provides food for cattle, it provides habitat for all kinds of wildlife.

1780—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-grown adj.

1618   W. Lithgow Pilgrimes Farewell sig. H   Heere on this greene growne Hill, I spreade my Table, Well couerd ou'r, with Leaues of diuerse sortes.
a1774   R. Fergusson Poems (1957) II. 182   Thanks, kindest Nature! for those floating gems, Those green-grown isles, with which you lavish strew Great Neptune's empire.
1807   D. Wordsworth in Mem. of Coleorton (1887) I. 220   The floor of the alley..is simply meant to be green-grown, which it will in a short time be with short moss.
1906   C. M. Doughty Dawn in Brit. I. i. 9   Green-grown the timbers of the royal barge, That shoot out branches then and golden buds.
1941   P. Goodman in Five Young Amer. Poets 42   It is the lordly Hudson hardly flowing..under the green-grown cliffs.

1618—1941(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-shining adj.

1823   La Belle Assemblée Jan. 23/1   The fairy chieftainess had exhorted her ‘green-shining people’ to daily and nightly vigilance, for the purpose of entrapping some little lovely girl, with a suitable mate of the other sex.
1858   Tennyson in Mem. (1897) I. 428   One great wave, green-shining, past..high up beside the vessel.
1904   H. D. Rawnsley Flower-time in Oberland iv. 48   Then the eye ranges over the snowfields and the green shining glaciers, and silver shining ice slopes.
2004   R. A. Salvatore Immortalis xv. 184   Dasslerond was holding a gemstone of her own, a green-shining emerald.

1823—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 b. Modifying colour words to form adjectives and nouns with the senses ‘greenish’, ‘greeny-’.
 

  green-black adj.

1769   J. Berkenhout Outl. Nat. Hist. Great Brit. & Ireland I. 26   Bill and Legs lead-colour... A green-black spot on each side of the Head.
1849   D. Campbell Pract. Text-bk. Inorg. Chem. 281   Leaving this oxide in green-black, anhydrous, lustrous crystals.
1968   A. K. Armah Beautyful Ones are not yet Born ix. 145   He kicked aside pieces of old shells lying on the green-black sand.
2003   K. Sampson Freshers 109   I sit on the cold step. I stare blankly out at a green-black Sheffield sky.

1769—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-blue adj.

1685   tr. F. M. van Helmont Paradoxal Disc. iv. ii. 97   Both these Sulphurs by reason of their strict union commonly flie away together in the fire, in the appearance of a Green-blue flame.
1844   L. S. Costello Béarn & Pyrenees: Legendary Tour II. 41   A broad space of clear green-blue sky was seen.
1991   World Press Rev. Nov. 59/1   All resorts have rooms or cottages that have not only a sea view but doors that lead out directly to the ubiquitous sugar-white sand and green-blue sea.

1685—1991(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-gold n. and adj.

1796   G. Shaw Vivarium Naturæ, or Naturalist’s Misc. VIII. sig. A6   Copper-coloured Buprestis with a gloss of green-gold; the wing-shells wrinkled, and bidentated at the extremities.
1802   G. Montagu Ornithol. Dict. at Ibis—Glossy   The bird, in flying, appears gilded when the sun shines upon it; quills green-gold, and when closed reach the end of the tail.
a1843   R. Southey Common-place Bk. (1849) 2nd Ser. 602/2   That green-gold beetle, the most splendid of British insects.
1961   F. Leiber Big Time (1969) 37   The green-gold markings made him look like a merman.
2002   Derbyshire Life & Countryside Nov. 125/2   Dry, sharp, with purity of fruit, perhaps appley,..it is steely fresh with green-gold glints that flash from the glass.

1796—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-golden adj.

1704   Nat. Hist. vi, in L. Wafer New Voy. & Descr. Isthmus Amer. (ed. 2) 218   The Green-Golden Humming-Bird.
1874   Harper's Mag. Dec. 45/2   The paper in the large dining-room..harmonizes well with the red carpet, the pictures, and the green-golden lustres of the velvet curtains.
1987   T. Horton Bay Country (1989) ii. 20   I pity anyone who has never..snuggled in the crotch of a willow while the wind and sun fooled with its green-golden tresses.

1704—1987(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-grey   n. and adj.

1615   T. Tomkis Albumazar iv. xiii, sig. K   I hate as perfectly this gray-greene of yours, As old Antonio's greene-gray.
1868   W. Cory Lett. & Jrnls. (1897) 240   Light on steep green-grey slopes.
1876   ‘S. Tytler’ What She came Through xli   The green-grey or ‘water of the Nile’, dear to the hearts of artists.
1998   A. Taylor Suffocating Night xxxvii. 259   There was the green-grey trunk of the beech—the roots that splayed out from the base like arthritic serpents.

1615—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-reddish adj.

1629   J. Parkinson Paradisi in Sole cix. 417   This single yellow Rose..often groweth to a good height, his stemme being great and wooddy,..of a darke colour somewhat reddish, the barke of the young shootes being of a sad greene reddish colour.
1829   London Encycl. I. 710/1   A green-reddish colour.
2006   R. S. Vizgirdas & E. M. Rey-Vizgirdas Wild Plants Sierra Nevada 61   Mosquito Fern..floats on the surface of the ponds, ditches, and other slow or sluggish waters. From a distance, it looks like a green-reddish carpet floating over the surface.

1629—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-yellow adj.

[1604   T. Winter tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Third Dayes Creation 20   Their bloud doth soile the blew-green-yellow grounds, Their bodies couerd are with deadly wounds.]
1611   J. Sylvester tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Deuine Weekes & Wks. (new ed.) ii. iv. 578   A short Beak bending like the Egles brood: Green-yellow eyes, where Terrors Tent is pight.
1849   D. Campbell Pract. Text-bk. Inorg. Chem. 297   From black, becoming blue-green, green-yellow, deep-red.
1998   Your Garden Oct. 68/1 (advt.)    English Garden Apples... Ashmeads Kernel: A variety for the connoisseur with large green-yellow fruits with a distinctive, aromatic sweet flavour.

1611—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

 c. Forming compound adjectives with the names of other colours, as green-and-gold, etc.

1811   W. J. Burchell Jrnl. 29 Dec. in Trav. Interior S. Afr. (1822) I. xix. 502   The Green-and-gold Cuckoo was found in abundance.
1882   H. de Windt On Equator 100   The Brookeana, a beautifully-marked green-and-black butterfly.
1928   Amer. Mercury Oct. 225/1   In an old satchel he carried a crazy collection of brushes, lamp-black, dried up paints, and the green-and-gold diploma of a ‘fingerprint institute’ in Washington.
1966   B. Brophy Don't never Forget 66   Most house fronts are tiled, so that they look trellised by some intricate green-and-blue or green-and-yellow flowering plant.
2009   ‘R. Keeland’ tr. S. Larsson Girl who played with Fire i. 7   She saw the woman walk to one of the green-and-white striped chaises-longues beside the pool.

1811—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 d.
 (a)

  green acres   n. arable land (see quot. 1812), open fields; estates.

1812   E. Wakefield Acct. Ireland I. vii. 247   The Marquis of Hertford has in this county 64,000 green acres, by which term I mean land capable of tillage, independently of bog or mountain land.
1856   ‘W. March’ Shoepac Recoll. xxi. 207   I would exchange all other earthly success for the ownership of that habitation and these green acres.
1923   Outing Apr. 8/2   Women and children are stooping over green acres picking strawberries.
1999   M. Shoard Right to Roam p. vii   I looked longingly at the green acres and inviting waters of the lakes, park, and woods of Luton Hoo, a large landed estate on my doorstep whose delights were almost completely out of bounds.

1812—1999(Hide quotations)

 

green apron   n. depreciative Obsolete a lay preacher; cf. apron n. 2.Earliest in attributive use.

1654   T. Warren Vnbeleevers 145   It more befits a Green-apron-Preacher, than such a Gamaliel.
1705   E. Hickeringill Priest-craft 17   Unbeneficed Non-Con's (that live by Alms, and no Paternoster no Peny, says the Green-Aprons).
[1791   M. Davis Thoughts on Dancing 24   The women among the people called Quakers have almost universally laid aside the green apron, and neither men nor women are so exact in the cut of their clothes..as they were but half a century ago.]

1654—1705(Hide quotations)

 

  green architecture   n.  (a) architectural elements in a garden or park formed from hedges, trees, or other vegetation;  (b) = eco-architecture n. at eco- comb. form 4.

1852   S. S. Cox Buckeye Abroad 220   We came into splendid flower and fruit gardens—tastefully arbored and arched with the green architecture, in multiform beauty, on every side.
1906   Notes & Queries 13 Jan. 39/1   Even the ‘green architecture’ itself formed a pleasant picture for the eye.
1989   Independent 6 May 35/5   There is a new green architecture emerging..that is as socially and as ecologically responsible as it is elegant and inspiring to live in.
2001   J. Clifton Climbing Gardens 41/2   These gardens remain the inspiration and primary reference for classical grandeur and formality, which was further emphasized by the use of topiary for green architecture and eye-catching features.
2009   J. Kellerman Evidence 141   The only thing we've heard..about your brother is he was into green architecture, the whole environment thing.

1852—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Beret   n. a member of one of the special operations forces having a green beret as part of their uniform, esp. those in the British Army (the Commandos) and later the United States Army Special Forces.The green beret was adopted by the British Commandos in 1942 and later, unofficially, by the U.S. Army Special Forces, becoming part of their official uniform in 1961.

[1943   Times 6 May 3/1 (advt.)    The green berets of the Special Service Brigade are now a familiar and heartening sight at home and abroad.]
1949   H. St. G. Saunders (title)    The Green Beret. The story of the Commandos.
1955   Mountaineer (Fort Carson, Colorado) 2 Dec.   Twelve of the green beret Special Forces troops will jump in the next test scheduled today.
1964   C. B. Colby Special Forces 18   In the top photo a ‘Green Beret’ takes to the air over the cornice of a hotel.
1970   A. Sinclair Guevara iii. 40   Che['s]..manual..even serves as a text-book for the Green Berets and other North American counterinsurgency special forces.
1970   Sunday Times 22 Nov. 23/6   Southampton [football team], as notorious as the Green Berets for their policy of search and destroy.
2002   Esquire Aug. 111/1   They went to the school the Green Berets attended in Fort Bragg to learn advanced high-altitude, low-opening techniques.

1949—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green book   n. any of various official (esp. governmental) documents bound in green; cf. blue book n.

1798   W. Coxe Mem. Sir R. Walpole I. xxi. 148   Knight..escaped from England, soon after his first examination, carrying with him the register called the green book.
1892   Times 14 Apr. 7/3   The results of these studies stand embodied in a ‘Green-book’, of extraordinary interest.
1928   Observer 5 Feb. 16/2   He knows far too much to be able to accept the whole policy laid down in the Green Book, and accepted by his party.
1966   tr. M. Toscano Hist. Treaties & Internat. Politics ii. ii. 95   Neither are the Italian government's Green Books free of these weaknesses, but, like their British counterparts, they contain omissions..rather than outright alterations.

1798—1966(Hide quotations)

 

  green break   v. originally and chiefly U.S. transitive to train (an unbroken horse or other animal) to accept harness, basic commands, etc., as a prelude to more advanced training; cf. A. 8c.

1941   Moberly (Missouri) Monitor-Index 5 Nov. 2/2   Mr. Burton had worked this colt and had it green broke.
1961   Washington Post 1 Nov. c5/1   Purchasing near-wild Indian ponies from a nearby reservation and then ‘green breaking’ them for a quick sale at small profit.
1982   Los Angeles Times 7 Dec. (San Diego County Business section) d/4   Earls also supplements his income by ‘green-breaking’ new horses at the stables.
2004   D. Stevens Making of Lawman xi. 61   I always ‘green broke’ the colts... Being younger and the boss, I figured it was my responsibility to get them started in their training.

1941—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green broke adj. originally and chiefly U.S. of a horse or other animal: newly or partially broken in; cf. A. 8c.

1903   Adams County Union-Republican (Corning, Iowa) 30 Sept. 3/5   1 span 3-year-old mules, green broke, sound, weight 2100.
1977   Chicago Tribune 6 Nov. (TV Week section) 6/1   Garrett acquired a lot of experience riding green-broke horses while making spaghetti Westerns with Jack Palance, Jim Brown, and Lee Van Cleef in Israel for five months.
2010   D. Aadland In Trace of TR iii. 67   This matter of herding horses on a green broke animal so recently part of a free-running herd boggles the mind and tightens the belly of any true horseman.

1903—2010(Hide quotations)

 

  green broken adj. originally and chiefly U.S. = green broke adj.

1906   Iowa Recorder (Greene, Iowa) 25 Apr. 4/5   Barney Dougherty sold three choice Idolator colts, green broken only, to Harry Marsh.
1937   Fitchburg (Mass.) Sentinel 17 Apr. 3/1   Our neighbor bought them when they were just green broken colts and he brought them along slowly.
2008   J. Rhodes Dark Ferryman xxii. 180   ‘What have you brought us? Green-broken horses?’ ‘Only the best from our lands but far from wild.’

1906—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green butter   n. butter combined with herbs or other savoury ingredients; (also) a type of vegetable fat (see quot. 1938).

1654   J. Cooper Art of Cookery 15   Lay on the Chickens yolks of Eggs cut into quarters, puffe-Paste, Lozanges, Sheeps tongues fryed in greene Butter.
1889   A. B. Marshall Cookery Bk. ii. 38   Montpellier or green butter.
1938   Thorpe's Dict. Appl. Chem. (ed. 4) II. 187/2   ‘Green butters’ (i.e. vegetable tallows which may be coloured artificially to resemble Borneo tallow).
1965   Sunday Times 5 Sept. (Colour Suppl.) 96/2   To make Green Butter; cream butter with garlic..chopped parsley..lemon juice, salt and pepper.
1995   Ashmolean Winter–Spring 23/1   Recipes ranging from scallop soup, chive mousse and green butter to Woolton Pie and (bemusingly) microwaved porridge.

1654—1995(Hide quotations)

 

  green charge   n. gunpowder whose ingredients have been mixed but have not yet undergone the incorporating process.

1825   Times 24 Oct. 3/3   They..empty the green charge into the bed which is milled for the time above stated, and then arrives at the strength of powder.
1896   Globe 10 Nov. 3/3   A ‘greencharge explosion’ took place at Messrs.—— Gunpowder Mills.
2006   W. S. Curtis in B. J. Buchanan Gunpowder, Explosives & State xii. 242   From whence did Rains acquire the concept of steaming the green charge?

1825—2006(Hide quotations)

 

  green chop n. U.S. Agriculture fodder harvested and chopped up while still green, and typically fed to animals immediately; cf. green crop n.

1954   Greeley (Colorado) Daily Tribune 2 Apr. 11/7   Now you can afford green chop!
1965   Jrnl. Range Managem. 18 342/2   The research project should include yield tests, feeding value of pasturage, hay, silage, and green chop.
1995   L. D. Lewis Equine Clin. Nutrition iv. 94/2   Green chop is not commonly fed to horses.

1954—1995(Hide quotations)

 

  green chop   v. U.S. Agriculture transitive to harvest and chop up (a fodder crop) while the crop is still green, typically in order to feed animals immediately; also intransitive; cf. soil v.4 1.

1956   Nevada State Jrnl. 24 Feb. 8   Green chopping alfalfa for 40 dairy cows is a daily job.
1977   Wisconsin State Jrnl. 11 May iv. 9/6   In southern Wisconsin there are a few farmers green chopping for their herds.
2006   D. A. Dzombak et al. Cyanide in Water & Soil 32   Sudan grass should not be grazed or green chopped until it reaches a height of at least 45 to 50cm.

1956—2006(Hide quotations)

 

  green chopping   n. U.S. Agriculture the action or practice of harvesting and chopping up a fodder crop while it is still green, typically in order to feed animals immediately; cf. soiling n.4 1.

1955   Reno (Nevada) Evening Gaz. 13 July 3/4   There are some minor disadvantages to green chopping.
1970   Columbus (Nebraska) Telegram 20 July 2/2   Green chopping can be used and has several advantages compared to grazing.
2003   D. R. Heldman Encycl. Agric., Food, & Biol. Engin. 358/1   Other harvest methods include grazing, green chopping, pelletizing, and direct-cut ensiling.

1955—2003(Hide quotations)

 

  green circle   n. North American (a symbol denoting) a ski run suitable for beginners.

1971   News Jrnl. (Mansfield, Ohio) 16 Feb. 19/3   At almost all lift houses there are National Ski Patrol signs outlining ability requirements. The easiest slope is marked with a green circle sign; the more difficult one with a blue square and the most difficult with a black diamond.
1983   Skiing Spring 39/1   Try it first on an easy (green-circle) slope. Then, as you improve, move to more difficult (blue-square) slopes and mogul fields.
2002   E. R. McManus Seizing your Divine Moment 163   You're a beginner. The green circle is where you stay... Do not, I repeat, do not go to the black diamonds.

1971—2002(Hide quotations)

 
 

green coffer   n. Obsolete (perhaps) a strongbox covered with green cloth.

1463   in S. Tymms Wills & Inventories Bury St. Edmunds (1850) 33 (MED)   I yeve and be qwethe to the seid Jone, my nece, a lityl grene coffre for kerchys.
a1483   Liber Niger in Coll. Ordinances Royal Househ. (1790) 65   Thys Countyng-house hathe assigned hym one charyotte complete & a sompter horse for the grene coffyrs.
1858   R. Chambers Domest. Ann. Scotl. I. 530   His countess..was accused..of having stolen a green coffer belonging to him, containing money and other valuables.

1463—1858(Hide quotations)

 

  green-collar adj.  [after blue-collar adj., white-collar adj.]  (a) (originally) of or designating work involving plants or horticulture; (now chiefly) of or designating work relating to the protection or preservation of the environment;  (b) of or designating (corporate) crime or fraud relating to the environment; cf. white-collar crime n. at white-collar n. and adj. Compounds.

1982   A. Maupin Further Tales of City 3   Ned Lockwood, a brawny forty-two-year-old who was practically the working model for the Green-collar Gay.
1990   United Press Internat. Newswire (Nexis) 13 Apr.   There's too much ‘green-collar’ fraud in the marketplace.
1992   Sci. News 25 Jan. 50/2   An overview of the rise of environmentalism and environmental business and the increase in demand for ‘green-collar’ workers.
2004   Jrnl. Criminal Law & Criminol. 95 133 (title of article)    Sentencing the green-collar offender: punishment, culpability, and environmental crime.
2008   Observer 27 Apr. (Business & Media section) 3/2   The sector..could create thousands of ‘green collar’ jobs, as the environment industry expands.

1982—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green crop   n. a crop used for fodder or food while in a green or unripe state, as opposed to a crop of grain, hay, etc.

1744   W. Ellis Mod. Husbandman Apr. ix. 87   Sowing Thetches, and feeding their green Crops off with Cattle kept in the Field.
1842   C. W. Johnson Farmer's Encycl. 585/2   Green crops, crops which are consumed on the farm in their unripe state.
1954   R. H. Cochrane Farm Machinery & Tractors (ed. 2) 71   The handling of a green crop after it has been cut by a mower is an arduous business.
2009   Brantford (Ont.) Expositor (Nexis) 30 May c1   Some people pick them [sc. tomatoes] green to fry or make into green tomato relish, so we can count them as a green crop.

1744—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  green cross adj.  [after German Grünkreuz (c1915)] now historical designating an artillery shell, marked with a green cross, which releases poisonous gas, originally used at Ypres during the First World War (1914–18); (also) designating the gas (a mix typically including phosgene) released by such a shell.

1916   Times 6 Oct. 8/1   One German light field howitzer battery..fired over 3,500 rounds of gas shells (known as ‘green cross’ shells) in 24 hours.
1928   Daily Express 22 May 1/2   An immense steel flask of phosgene, the notorious Green Cross poison gas employed by Germany with such deadly effect during the war.
1931   J. Brophy & E. Partridge Songs & Slang Brit. Soldier: 1914–1918 (ed. 3) 314   Green cross shell, an enemy gas-shell of an emetic and lachrymatory nature.
2000   R.-D. Müller in R. Chickering & S. Förster Great War, Total War ii. v. 104   A large-scale deployment at Verdun on June 22, 1916, so drenched the French troops in green cross gas that their protective masks proved ineffective.

1916—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Cross Code   n. (also with lower-case initial in third element) British a set of guidelines (intended esp. for children) for crossing the road safely, introduced in 1971 and subsequently incorporated in the Highway Code; also in extended use.

1971   Times 29 Apr. 4/1   A new kerb drill for children is to replace the ‘look right, left and right again’ roadside slogan... The Green Cross code could be taught to and understood by children of seven and over.
1987   A. Scher & C. Verrall Another 100+ Ideas for Drama vi. 92   The child ran into the road after a ball, without heeding the Green Cross Code.
1997   Guardian 16 July t14   This is your chance to improvise a Green Cross Code for the beach.
2004   Daily Tel. 13 Nov. 8   My mother would force-feed me the Green Cross Code with such demented vigour that it remains embedded in my brain to this day. I can't even cross my fingers without first looking right, left and right again.

1971—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green curry   n. any of various curry dishes having a green colour; (now) spec. a type of Thai curry which takes its colour from a seasoning mixture containing green chillies (cf. green curry paste n.).

1804   ‘Ignotus’ Culina 137 (heading)    A green curry.
1906   Everyday Housek. Apr. 848/1   The dishes, written in green ink, being as follows: Green consomme, green turtle,..green curry with chicken giblets.
1978   Chicago Tribune 24 Sept. vi. 13/2   It made an ideal foil for the fiery green curry ($2.75) we ordered. (The Thai Room offers milder curries, too.)
2009   J. Black Speak of Devil 121   Is this green curry going to eat a hole through my stomach lining?

1804—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  green curry paste   n. a seasoning mixture used in Thai cookery, containing green chillies and other flavourful ingredients, such as lemongrass, coriander, galangal, and garlic, ground into a smooth paste.

1970   R. Steinberg Pacific & Southeast Asian Cooking x. 193   Add the green curry paste and the pulverized kachai, and cook briskly, stirring from time to time.
1981   Chicago Tribune 13 Apr. ii. 9/2   The green curry paste..is made a couple of days ahead to mature and ripen.
2010   Irish Times (Electronic ed.) 9 Jan. 11   Armed with a stone pestle and mortar, you begin by learning how to make Thai green curry paste.

1970—2010(Hide quotations)

 

  green curtain   n. Theatre a front curtain, traditionally one made of a green material.

[1758   Case Stage Ireland 27   Perhaps, Mr. Sheridan could not procure any better. To this it was replied, that the Theatres in London are content with plain green Curtains.]
1805   Wynne Diaries 15 June (1940) III. 172   The Ballets have in general been curtailed..but this evening the Green Curtain..dropped at twenty minutes after Eleven.
1859   J. R. Planché Love & Fortune 31   Then amidst your applause may the green curtain fall.
1961   W. P. Bowman & R. H. Ball Theatre Lang. 162   Green curtain, a heavy outer curtain, traditional from the time of the Restoration, but now outmoded, serving variously as an act drop, fire curtain, etc.
2008   Herald Sun (Austral.) (Nexis) 10 Sept. 49   By the time the green curtain was raised on the $18 million production of Wicked on July 12, all the pieces were in place to make it one of the most successful musicals in Australian theatre.

1805—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green dressing   n. Agriculture (now rare)  (a) = green manure n.;  (b) = green manuring n.

1732   W. Ellis Pract. Farmer 30   French-Wheat, when sowed to dress the Ground... Let it lie three Weeks or a Month. In this time it will smoak,..like a Dung-hill; and as it is a green dressing, will quickly rot in the Ground.
1766   Compl. Farmer at Pulse   [He] prefers millet to every other plant for green-dressing of land, on account of the cheapness of the seed, and the largeness of the stalks and leaves, which must afford a good coat to turn in when ploughed.
1811   Agric. Museum 24 Apr. 327   Clover ploughed in, is a good green-dressing.
1893   Chem. News 3 Mar. 108/2   Green-dressing—the ploughing in of certain green crops—is recommended as a source of nitrogen and as improving the condition of the soil.
1973   S. B. Philpott West Indian Migration iii. 56   The crop land was rotated every year or two, some was fallowed or planted in green dressing, more was used for vegetables and pasture.

1732—1973(Hide quotations)

 
 

Green Erin   n. Obsolete Ireland.

1822   Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. 12 107   I don't care a tester for that piperly poet of green Erin.

1822—1822(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green eye   n. the eye of jealousy (cf. green-eyed adj.).

a1845   T. Hood Lamia v, in W. Jerdan Autobiogr. (1852) I. 285   Sir Lycius now Must have the green eye set in his head.
1914   Bull. National Assoc. Credit Men Aug. 500   If you are looking with the ‘green eye’ at the men who have inherited millions, it may be well for you to remember that they are envious of you.
1998   P. Jooste Dance with Poor Man's Daughter (1999) v. 92   Evie has got over her green eye and on my birthday night James is back with us and he's brought a present for me.

a1845—1998(Hide quotations)

 

  green fairy n.  [Compare French fée verte (1877 or earlier).] absinthe.

1902   J. Huneker Melomaniacs 21   ‘The absinthe—you have not forgotten it?’.. ‘Ah, no, sir; never, sir, do I forget the green fairy for the great musician, sir.’
1920   J. Huneker Bedouins i. iv. 34   The opalescent music, drugged with dreams, has the numbing effect of that ‘green fairy’ no longer permitted in la belle France.
1922   J. Joyce Ulysses 43   Kevin Egan rolls gunpowder cigarettes..sipping his green fairy as Patrice his white.
2007   N.Y. Mag. 13 Aug. 53/4   The..bar serves the only legal version of absinthe allowed in the country. Drip some ice water over a sugar cube, and the ‘green fairy’ looks suspiciously like a harmless glass of milk.

1902—2007(Hide quotations)

 

  green fat   n. now rare the green gelatinous part of a turtle, considered a delicacy; also in extended use.

1763   D. Garrick Let. 18 July (1963) I. 379   I thank you from my soul for your literary turtle..it was all green fat.
1782   Literary Amusements II. 187   To me, who never eat of turtle, the jargon of callapash, callapee, and green fat, was unintelligible.
1830   D. Booth Analyt. Dict. Eng. Lang. 101   The more highly prized Green Fat..is found..round the abdomen.
1870   U. Dubois Cosmopol. Cookery 56   To prepare the turtle-soup..add to it some pieces of the green fat.
1922   A. Jekyll Kitchen Ess. 37   Consommé Fausse Tortue... Add..some pieces of the meat cut in gelatinous squares from the [calf's] head and indistinguishable from green fat.
2004   J. R. Spotila Sea Turtles vi. 97   The green turtle is probably best known for its green fat and muscles, which are delicious in soup or as a steak.

1763—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green-fingered adj. skilful or successful in making plants grow; (also) characteristic of a person who is skilled in this way.

1918   L. B. Wilder Color in My Garden i. 3   Under the care of our green-fingered grandmothers gardens throve and were full of hearty, wholesome colour.
1946   Nature 28 Dec. 941/2   The arts of budding and grafting can only be fully acquired by observing the green-fingered dexterity of the experienced propagator.
1966   Lancet 31 Dec. 1461/2   Trees like this..would soon be produced by hybridisation and plant-hormones under the green-fingered genius of him and his helpers.
2003   Sunday Mail (Brisbane) 9 Mar. 63/1 (heading)    Homemakers, handypeople, decorators, renovators, carpenters and green-fingered gardeners put a love lock on Brisbane's Home Show and Garden Expo.

1918—2003(Hide quotations)

 

  green fingers   n. skill or success in making plants grow, esp. in to have green fingers ; also in extended use.

1906   M. S. Boyd Misses Make-believe 217   What old wives call ‘green fingers’: those magic digits that appear to ensure the growth of everything they plant.
1943   S. Cloete Congo Song xvi. 150   Some men have green fingers. Plants like them. They can make things grow because they love them.
1949   Eng. Stud. i. 2   Yet we are such born meddlers, and so convinced..that we have ‘green fingers’ of the spirit to give help and guidance in these difficult years.
1969   Daily Tel. 26 Apr. 6/6   ‘Success with money is often accidental,’ she sighed. ‘One needs “green fingers” to make it grow.’
1997   Home Flair July 20/1   With her green fingers and Keith's constant encouragement, flowerbeds began to take shape.
2008   Evening Chron. (Newcastle) (Nexis) 13 June 24   Their eyes aren't what they used to be, but these blind gardeners have still got green fingers.

1906—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green-finned adj. now historical (of an oyster) having green gills (cf. green gill n.   and the note there); cf. green-gilled adj.   and green oyster n. (a).

1645   J. Howell Epistolæ Ho-elianæ ii. xi. 14   I have sent you..two barrells of Colchester oysters,..I presume they are good, and all green finnd.
1772   J. Rutty Nat. Hist. County Dublin I. 377   The third Bed..is the Malahide Oyster, which is partly green-finned, and reckoned very delicious.
1886   Amer. Mag. Jan. 94   There is a small, delicate oyster at Genoa, and a green-finned one at Venice, both of which are excellent.
1948   Dublin Hist. Rec. 10 15   But of all her harvest from the open sea, Malahide was chiefly famous for her ‘green-finned oysters’.

1645—1948(Hide quotations)

 

  green fire   n. an intense green light produced by pyrotechnics; (now chiefly historical) a mixture ignited to produce this, typically containing barium.

1730   R. Bradley Course Lect. Materia Medica 87   Where we would produce a green Fire, and use Verdigrease finely powdered, this ought to be a companion with the other Parts of the Composition, such as Gun-powder finely powdered.
1822   Q. Jrnl. Sci., Lit. & Arts Oct. 232   We now give..the component parts of a more modern invention.., namely, a green fire.
1940   G. H. J. Adlam & L. S. Price Higher School Certificate Inorg. Chem. (ed. 2) xxx. 245   It is used to form ‘green fire’ in pyrotechny since barium compounds colour the flame green.
2006   Irish News (Nexis) 20 Oct. 3   Vertical lines of green fire were also launched from the ground while ‘Pigeons’ shot fireworks backwards and forwards.

1730—2006(Hide quotations)

 

  green flash   n. a flash of green light that is sometimes seen briefly just above the sun as it is about to disappear below the horizon at sunset, or as it first appears at sunrise; = green ray n. (b).

1887   Nature 24 Feb. 391/1   As soon as the last speck of the yellow vanished, a momentary bright green flash shone out.
1925   R. Clements Gipsy of Horn 125   For the first time I saw the ‘Green Flash’, as it is called. Just as the sun is about to sink below the horizon a flash of vivid green seems to leap from it. It only lasts a second and is gone.
1951   Caribbean Q. 2 ii. 40   In the West Indies..we have the finest opportunities for observing the phenomenon of the Green Flash.
2007   K. H. Hemmings Descendants i. x. 69   It's a communal activity around here, waiting for this green flash, hoping to catch it.

1887—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-flesh adj. (esp. of a fruit or vegetable) having green flesh.

1806   B. M'Mahon Amer. Gardener's Cal. 581   Kitchen-Garden Esculent Plants and Herbs... Melon, Water. Cucurbita Citrullus. 1. Long Red-flesh. 2. Long Yellow-flesh. 3. Large Round Red-flesh. 4. Green-flesh do.
1855   R. Browning De Gustibus ii, in Men & Women II. 149   A girl bare-footed brings and tumbles Down on the pavement, green-flesh melons.
1995   Virginian-Pilot (Norfolk, Va.) (Nexis) 9 Mar. 6   My father must have loved sweet potatoes as well as anyone who ever lived—particularly Haymans—the green-flesh variety my aunt and uncle would bring over from the Eastern Shore in the fall.

1806—1995(Hide quotations)

 

  green fluorescent protein   n. Biochemistry a protein that exhibits green fluorescence when exposed to blue light, spec. that originally isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, often used as an experimental tracer or marker, esp. in molecular biology and genetic engineering; abbreviated GFP.

[1962   Jrnl. Cellular & Compar. Physiol. 59 236/2   It is reasonable to suppose that the greenish quality results from a light filtering effect and fluorescence of the green protein.]
1969   Biol. Bull. 137 402   This is attributed to energy transfer from the luminescent system to a green fluorescent protein associated with the photogenic granules.
1994   Nature 2 June 400/2   Here we express a chimaeric gene encoding a fusion between the Aequorea victoria [printed Acquorea victoria] green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the exu protein (Exu) in female germ cells [of Drosophila].
2006   M. Crichton Next xxxi. 165   The fertilized egg of an albino rabbit was injected with..the gene for green fluorescent protein from a Pacific Northwest jellyfish.

1969—2006(Hide quotations)

 

  green fog   n. Photography (now disused) an iridescent green stain on a developed plate; cf. fog n.2 4.

1880   Jrnl. Photogr. Soc. Dec. 41   Mr. R. Manners Gordon says that with iodine he always gets green fog if he uses as much as 1 grain per ounce of emulsion.
1889   E. J. Wall Dict. Photogr. 77   The obvious remedy for this evil, with a brand of plate known to be liable to green fog, is the use of potash and soda or ferrous oxalate.
1912   Wilson's Photogr. Mag. 49 103/1   If the green fog is only slight it does not affect the prints made from the negative.

1880—1912(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green food   n. grass or green vegetables used for food or fodder.

1658   tr. G. della Porta Nat. Magick xiv. vii. 320   Milk must not be eaten, when Goats and Sheep feed on green food, because it will loosen the belly the more.
1799   G. Washington Writings (1893) XIV. 225   For spring, summer, and autumn, it is expected, that soiling of them on green food..will enable them to perform their work.
1879   F. T. Pollok Sport Brit. Burmah I. 234   To keep an elephant in health, his green food should be constantly changed.
1965   Austral. Encycl. VII. 232/1   The almost cosmopolitan P[ortulaca] oleracea (..purslane or pigweed) is used as a green food by Indonesian and Polynesian peoples.

1658—1965(Hide quotations)

 

  green gate    [ < green adj. + gate n.2] rare (now Scottish) = greenway n.

c1540   Pilgrim's Tale 13 in F. Thynne Animaduersions (1875) App. i. 77   The gren gat I had more delit to folow Then of deuotion to seke the halowe.
1988   G. Lamb Orkney Wordbk.   Green-gate, a grassy path.

c1540—1988(Hide quotations)

 

  green gill   n. U.S. a condition of oysters whose gills have acquired a green tinge; cf. green v.1 2b.In Europe such oysters were formerly regarded as a delicacy.

1881   E. Ingersoll Oyster-industry (10th Census U.S.: Bureau of Fisheries) 185   In 1880 what the oystermen call the ‘green-gill’ began to affect the planted oysters in Back river.
1916   Science 8 Sept. 347/2   Mr. R. L. Barney..is aiding the director in the study of diatoms of green gill oysters and the life history of sporozoan parasites.
2006   Daily News (Jacksonville, N. Carolina) (Nexis) 12 Feb.   It has productive oyster beds that usually do not get green gill.

1881—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-gilled adj.  (a) having green gills; (of an oyster) = green-finned adj.;  (b) = green around (also about, at, in) the gills at Phrases 6.

1858   Amer. Jrnl. Sci. 75 294 (heading)    Notice of the occurrence of green-gilled oysters.
1905   Leslie's Monthly Mag. May 70/2   Which leaves me and the green-gilled tenderfoot.
1918   C. H. Kauffman Agaricaceae of Michigan I. 17   Avoid the green-gilled Lepiota.
1920   Ann. Rep. 1919 (Conservation Comm. N.Y.) 55   Algae grows only where the waters are pure.., and in some European sections green gilled oysters are preferred to any other kind.
1992   N.Y. Times Mag. 26 Jan. 29/2   The dreaded evening of the Smithsonian speech finally arrived. I stood knock-kneed and green-gilled before 300 people.
2003   W. C. Roody Mushrooms West Virginia & Central Appalachians i. 73   The Parasol Mushroom looks like a kettledrum stick. At this stage it can be confused with the poisonous Green-gilled Lepiota.

1858—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green ginger   n. undried ginger root, often preserved.

1393   in M. T. Löfvenberg Contrib. Middle Eng. Lexicogr. & Etymol. (1946) 67 (MED)   Grengynger.
1448   in P. E. Jones Cal. Plea & Mem. Rolls London Guildhall (1954) V. 108 (MED)   A Rynyssh fat with a Covercle like the hede of the seid fatte, both of sylver & overgilt, ordeyned to put ynne grene gynger.
1599   H. Buttes Dyets Dry Dinner sig. O2v   Greene Ginger, condite with hony, warmes olde mens bellyes.
1664   in G. F. Dow Probate Rec. Essex County, Mass. (1916) I. 454   1 Barrell Green ginger, cost 5li.
1753   R. Colborne Plain Eng. Dispensatory 276/1   Take Conserve of Rosemary-flowers, an Ounce; green Ginger, Powder of Millipedes (live ones are best) of each half an Ounce, [etc.].
1852   F. Bishop Illustr. London Cookery Bk. xix. 338   Take some green ginger, and with a sharp knife pare it neatly, and as it is pared throw into a pan of cold water to keep it white.
1985   R. Fernandez Malaysian Cookery 39   To use green ginger, scrape off the scaly skin then mince, crush or pulverize to a paste.

1393—1985(Hide quotations)

 

  green gland   n. Zoology (in crustaceans) each of a pair of excretory organs having a greenish bladder, opening via a duct and pore at the coxae of the antennae or of a pair of legs (also called antennal gland and coxal gland respectively).

1854   W. I. Burnett tr. C. T. E. von Siebold in tr. C. T. E. von Siebold & H. Stannius Compar. Anat. I. xii. 324/2   Neuwyler has given the green glands of the craw-fish a special examination.
1893   T. R. R. Stebbing Hist. Crustacea iv. 38   The first, or basal joint of the peduncle..very often carries a tubercle in connection with the ‘green gland’, of which the function is supposed to be renal.
1952   J. A. Ramsay Physiol. Approach Lower Animals iv. 58   In the shore crab Carcinus the excretory organ is the antennary gland, or green gland, and consists of three parts.
2004   Internat. Congr. Ser. 1275 102   The nephridial canal is positioned at the periphery of the green gland.

1854—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green glass   n. glass of a green colour, often used for bottles; in early use spec. a coarse type of glass distinguished from that of finer quality; frequently attributive.

1559   P. Morwyng tr. C. Gesner Treasure of Euonymus 69   The common grene glasse will gather a certain duskishnes and as it were a skin.
1660   R. Boyle New Exper. Physico-mechanicall xxxvi. 277   The courser sort of Glass (which the Trades-men are wont to call Green-glass).
1784   G. Adams Ess. Electr. 118   It is very difficult to break by an explosion the jars which are made of green glass, fabricated at Newcastle.
1838   C. Dickens Oliver Twist II. xxvii. 123   A pint green-glass bottle.
1923   U. L. Silberrad Lett. Jean Armiter ii. 33   A green-glass slave bangle.
2001   D. K. Barlow in R. K. Dhir et al. Recycling & Reuse of Glass Cullet i. 13   The maximum amount of recycled green glass that can be used in the production of new green bottles is about 90%.

1559—2001(Hide quotations)

 

  green gold n.  (a) an alloy of gold with approx. 10 per cent silver;  (b) a plant or plant product having a high market value; cf. black gold n. at black adj. and n. Compounds 1e(a).In quot. 1697   perhaps: an impure form of gold.

1697   C. K. Art's Master-piece 53   Green Gold, a corrupt Mettal so called, is very good in this Work, for casting a fading Green colour.
c1791   Encycl. Brit. VIII. 6/2   The alloy of gold with silver forms the green gold of the jewellers and gold-beaters.
1825   ‘J. Nicholson’ Operative Mechanic 724   To heighten the colour of Green Gold.
1911   Washington Post 18 June (Misc. section) 2/5   He has heard the henequen referred to as the ‘green gold of the peninsula’.
1993   Treasure Hunting Mar. 21/1   Green Gold..is used for making jewellery and small trinkets.
2002   J. Madeley Food for All x. 105   For farmers this was the opportunity they sought. Coffee was seen as the ‘green gold’.

1697—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green goods   n.  (a) fruit and vegetables; goods sold by a greengrocer (now rare);  (b) U.S. slang counterfeit greenbacks (greenback n. 3); frequently attributive.

1856   Graham's Mag. May 400/1   The shops where green goods are for sale, where grapes, melons and figs are spread out, rejoice the eye with their cool verdure.
1887   G. W. Walling Recoll. N.Y. Chief of Police x. 126   He informs his prospective victim that he has a large quantity of ‘green goods’ (counterfeit money) of different denominations.
1891   A. C. Gunter Miss Nobody iii. xix. 223   The janitor..states that in his opinion, Stillman, Myth and Co. were in the ‘green-goods’ business.
1920   E. W. Bok Autobiogr. (1921) 99   A market dealer in green goods.
1991   L. Sante Low Life ii. iv. 171   The green goods swindle, also known as the sawdust game, arrived on the scene in 1869.

1856—1991(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green-goods man   n. a dealer in green goods (green goods n. (b)).

1886   St. Louis (Missouri) Globe-Democrat 10 Nov. 8/5 (heading)    Victimized by ‘Green Goods’ Men.
1894   Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch 31 Jan.   The New York flim-flammers and green goods men..are still out of the clutches of the United Secret Service.
1913   Amer. Anthropologist 15 347   Quite recently the ‘green-goods man’ has become less conspicuous than the forger or the embezzler.
2004   T. Spargo Wanted Man xiv. 145   George Armstrong, a wealthy ‘green-goods’ man or confidence trickster.

1886—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green hand   n. a new or untrained recruit, esp. on board a ship; cf. hand n. 14   and green man n. 2.

1747   G. G. Beekman Let. 17 Mar. in Beekman Mercantile Papers (1956) I. 16   The barrer Captain Israel Boarman is a green hand, if you can help him to some freight back pray doe.
1790   T. Coxe Notes on Amer. Fisheries in T. Jefferson Papers (1974) XIX. 186   They confine the advances to Seamen in this Trade [sc. the Newfoundland fishery]..to one half of what is due 'till their final discharge..except in the case of green hands whose outfit may actually require more.
1864   C. F. Hall Life with Esquimaux I. 91   Being a stranger in the place and a green hand, I found it very difficult to get a berth.
2002   D. Lundy Way of Ship (2003) ii. 78   Coiling was a job for the apprentices and green hands when a few lines were involved.

1747—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  greenhide   n. in later use chiefly Australian the raw or untanned hide of an animal; frequently as a mass noun and attributive; cf. sense A. 6b.

OEGrenre hyde [see sense A. 6b].
1572   W. Malim tr. N. Martinengo True Rep. Famagosta 9   And they came with certaine boordes couered with raw and greene hydes, vnder which they brought their men to digge in the vaymures.
1677   Recs. Gen. Court 18 Oct. in J. H. Trumbull Public Rec. Colony Connecticut (1852) II. 325   Noe tanner shall haue any more for taning any hide than two pence upon the pownd for green hides and fower pence..for dry hides.
1728   E. Chambers Cycl. (at cited word)   Green Hide, is that not yet curried, but such as taken off from the Carcase.
1840   R. H. Dana Two Years before Mast xxx. 111   Wheel-ropes made of green hide, laid up in the form of ropes.
1850   J. G. Bruff Jrnl. 27 Aug. in Gold Rush (1944) II. iv. 830   They also found, where the indians had been, a knife, and a green hide halter.
1881   A. C. Grant Bush-life in Queensland (1882) viii. 72   A strongly plaited greenhide-halter was now slipped over the head.
a1921   G. H. Gibson in Penguin Bk. Austral. Ballads (1964) 206   He could..Chop his name with a green-hide fall on the flank of a flyin' steer.
1963   W. E. Harney To Ayers Rock & Beyond v. 45   The drafting-yards was superseded by the ‘tailing-yard’ with bronco-panels and twisted greenhide ropes with a leather ‘hoonda’ for the ring.
2000   Land (N. Richmond, New S. Wales) 1 June (Trader section) 16/5 (advt.)    Stock lines include; harness, bridle and embossing leather..kangaroo leather and lace. Red hide and Greenhide.

OE—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Island   n. (with the) Ireland.

1797   W. Drennan Erin in Morning Post 29 Sept. 3/3   When Erin first rose from the dark swelling flood, God bless'd the Green Island, and saw it was good.
1854   Times 26 July 10/4   The greenest thing ever done by the House of Commons has been done upon the motion of Mr. Greene, a native of the Green Island, who has obtained a green committee for the greenest of all possible inquiries.
1905   Blackwood's Edinb. Mag. Aug. 253/1   Even then a taste for claret was a gentlemanly weakness among the priests and people of the green island.
1995   Y. Midzunoe in T. Westendorp & J. Mallinson Politics & Rhetoric Poetry vi. 62   His Irish heritage, which included the whole of the green island.

1797—1995(Hide quotations)

 
 

  Green Isle   n. (with the) = Green Island n.; cf. Emerald Isle n. at emerald n. Compounds 4.

1812   W. Wheeler Let. 18 Aug. (1951) 92   The servant entered and announced Father Kelly... He was from the ‘Green Isle’.
1871   C. L. Money Knocking about in N.Z. 73   That lively specimen from the green isle, who seems to flourish with rank luxuriance in the neighbourhood of gold.
1921   H. Van Dyke Camp-fires & Guide-posts ii. 34   The trouble is that it has two insularities, one to the north, and one to the south. When they are harmonized to desire the same thing it will be a fine day for the Green Isle.
2004   Irish Dancing Internat. July 3/2   It's packed with a huge Guide To Ireland—region by region, including all the places not to be missed, if/when you're visiting the green isle.

1812—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Jacket   n.  (a) a member of any of various former or current regiments and other divisions of the British Army who originally wore dark green uniforms, esp. the King's Royal Rifle Corps or the Rifle Brigade; chiefly in plural; also occasionally attributive;  (b) Golf (with lower-case initials) a green sports coat awarded to the winner of the U.S. Masters Tournament.A green jacket has been awarded to each winner of the Masters since 1949; such jackets have been worn by members of the Augusta National Golf Club, where the tournament is held, since 1937.

1824   in Sir. H. Smith Autobiogr. (1901) I. 3   ‘Well, I will make you a Rifleman, a green jacket,’ says the General.
1927   Observer 1 May 19   The Duke [of Connaught] loves the Green Jackets best of all in spite of his other military associations.
1951   Chicago Sunday Tribune 1 Apr. ii. 5/5   Only Horton Smith and Byron Nelson have had the honor of twice wearing the green jacket donned by each year's winner.
1972   Country Life 2 Mar. 511/2   The whereabouts of the service and campaign medals presented to this ‘Greenjacket family’ are eagerly sought.
1990   A. Beevor Inside Brit. Army xix. 228   Some regiments even seem to produce a physical stereotype—willowy cavalry officers with flopping hair, slim Green Jackets with saturnine good looks.
2002   J. Nicklaus & J. Tickell Golf & Life (2003) iii. 17   It was the sixth time I had won the green jacket.

1824—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green jaundice   n. Medicine a disorder accompanied by greenish discoloration of the skin (cf. green sickness n. 1); spec. a form of jaundice in which there is accumulation of the green bile pigment biliverdin, usually as a result of biliary obstruction.

[a1398   J. Trevisa tr. Bartholomaeus Anglicus De Proprietatibus Rerum (BL Add. 27944) (1975) I. vii. liii. 406   Þere beþ þre maner of iaundes..ȝolouh þat comeþ of kynde colera, grene, and blacke... And secund hatte somtyme peganicis, þat is to menynge ‘grene’, for þe body is imade grene wiþ grene colera.]
1547   A. Borde Breuiary of Helthe i. clxxviii. sig. Tiii   The grene Jawnes doth come of yelow coler myxt with putrified fleume, a corrupcion of blode.
1652   Edwards' Treat. conc. Plague 145 (heading) in A. M. Rich Closet   For the green Sicknesse, or green Iaundies.
1721   J. Handley Mech. Ess. Animal Oecon. 130   So is the Colour in the Skin, producing what we call a yellow, black, and sometimes the green Jaundice.
1822   J. M. Good Study Med. I. 391   In green jaundice the patient rarely recovers.
1987   Jrnl. Amer. Acad. Dermatol. 16 174/2   Green jaundice is an uncommon complication of hyperbilirubinemia and has various causes in adults.

1547—1987(Hide quotations)

 

green jerkin   n. Obsolete (historical in later use) a person who wears a green jerkin, esp. a forester.

1826   W. Scott Woodstock II. v. 139   By the force of his buffcoats and his greenjerkins.
1848   Gift of Friendship (1854) 212   The harmless revelry of the green-jerkins of Windsor-forest shall never be disturbed by brawls and bloodshed.
1901   J. Stoughton Hist. Relig. in Eng. (ed. 2) I. v. 237   Hampden saw with pride his green jerkins winding through the vales of Buckinghamshire.

1826—1901(Hide quotations)

 

  green jersey   n. Cycling (in a race involving stages) a green racing jersey used to signify the current leader or overall winner of a secondary competition (typically a points competition for sprinting); (also) the wearer or winner of the jersey; cf. yellow jersey n. at yellow adj. and n. Compounds 2a.

1961   Observer 2 July 16/5   Anquetil wore the yellow jersey for leading on time. Darrigade the green jersey for best points placings.
1993   Cycling Weekly 23 Jan. 22/1   We had about 20 miles to go. And a break of 10 got away, including the second and third-placed girl and the green jersey.
2004   J. Wilcockson 23 Days in July (2005) i. 23   He gets..the yellow jersey for leading the race, green jersey for leading on points, and white jersey for best young rider.

1961—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green lane   n. a grassy lane; an unsurfaced rural road or track; cf. green road n.Recorded earliest in a surname.

1297   in L. M. Midgley Ministers' Accts. Earldom of Cornwall (1942) I. 92 (MED)   Iohanne ate Grenelane.
1678   J. Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress 163   We have, as you see, a fine pleasant green Lane, that comes down from our Countrey the next way into it.  
1796   C. Tomkins Tour Isle of Wight II. 56   There are now only a few scattered houses in the green lanes, which once were streets.
1877   L. J. Jennings Field Paths & Green Lanes (1878) Pref. p. vii   I have invariably followed a green lane or a field path, wherever one could be found.
1995   Guardian 24 Mar. i. 5/7   We hope to set a legal precedent to protect hundreds of miles of green lanes that are at risk of being churned up by off-road vehicles.

1297—1995(Hide quotations)

 

green-leafy adj. poetic Obsolete rare abundant in green foliage; verdant.

a1849   J. C. Mangan Poems (1859) 357   Each green-leafy bosk and hollow.

a1849—a1849(Hide quotations)

 

green-leave adj. Obsolete rare having green leaves.

1609   S. Rowlands Famous Hist. Guy Earle of Warwick 39   Where shady trees Embrac'd each other in their green-leave arms.

1609—1609(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Line   n. a service of express coaches serving London and surrounding counties (a proprietary name in the United Kingdom); chiefly attributive, as Green Line coach, etc.

1932   Times 6 Feb. 14/3   Arrangements have been made for the acquisition of the Skylark Motor Coach Company..and the London to Ongar service of Associated Coaches... Licences held by the above companies to be regranted to Green Line Coaches.
1935   A. E. W. Mason They wouldn't be Chessmen v. 67   He..was almost run over by a Green Line charabanc.
1961   J. Stroud Touch & Go ii. 21   ‘How do we get there?’ ‘Train, I suppose. Or Green Line.’
1994   P. Hobbs & M. Algar Free to Trav. xv. 90   The Green Line Days Out brochure..describes inexpensive day-return outings by coach to places like Stratford-Upon-Avon, Hampton Court Palace, Oxford, Cambridge.

1932—1994(Hide quotations)

 

  greenlining   n. U.S. efforts aimed at increasing investment in neighbourhoods which have been red-lined or are otherwise disadvantaged (cf. red-line v. 1c); spec. (esp. in early use) the boycotting of banks thought to engage in red-lining; frequently attributive.

1974   Chicago Defender 21 Mar. 14/2   This ‘green-lining’ program is aimed at turning around the red-lining which is said to be starving older communities of mortgage money.
1980   J. McClaughry in P. Duignan & A. Rabushka U.S. in 1980s i. 383   The real answer to the bank that siphons its depositors' funds out of their declining neighborhood is greenlining.
1992   Business Jrnl. (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) (Nexis) 12 Sept.   He said Shorebank would revitalize Milwaukee's faltering neighborhoods through a process of long-term reinvestment and job creation called ‘greenlining’.
2003   P. Dreier in G. D. Squires Organizing Access to Capital xii. 193   Efforts involved consumer boycotts—‘greenlining campaigns’—of neighborhood banks that refused to reinvest local depositors' money in their own backyards.

1974—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green lung   n. a park, public garden, or other area providing open space and greenery for the inhabitants of a city; cf. lung n. 1b.

1885   H. A. Smith Great Cities of Mod. World 84   Through the city are the pretty green ‘lungs’, as they have been called in London.
1946   Manch. Guardian 20 Apr. 3/4   In the south of the city the parks were not to be resisted... The green lungs of black Manchester worked overtime.
2008   N.Y. Times 23 Mar. (Travel section) 10   The city's piece de resistance, also its green lung, is Lodhi Gardens, a free, quiet sanctuary for parakeets and lovers.

1885—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green manure   n. a crop which is ploughed or dug into the ground while still growing in order to replenish nutrients and improve soil structure.

1785   Ann. Agric. 4 213   The wheat is sown, and lightly harrowed, on purpose to cover it in sufficiently without unburying the green manure.
1842   J. F. W. Johnston Agric. Chem. 141   Among green manures the use of fresh sea-ware deserves especial mention.
1929   H. A. A. Nicholls & J. H. Holland Text-bk. Trop. Agric. (ed. 2) ii. ii. 123   The pigeon, or Congo pea (Cajanus indicus ) makes an excellent shade for the young trees and is also a good green manure.
2003   Org. Gardening Sept. 9/1   As ground is cleared you may want to sow a green manure rather than leave bare earth through the winter.

1785—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green manuring   n. the practice of using green manures to improve soil.

1821   tr. A. P. de Candolle & K. Sprengel Elements Philos. Plants iv. ii. 225   The green manuring..proves the same fact; but the slow fermentation of green vegetables should only be employed in fertile and warm soils.
1842   J. F. W. Johnston Agric. Chem. 139   The practice of green manuring has been in use from very early periods.
1947   D. H. Robinson Leguminous Forage Plants (ed. 2) vi. 84   White lupin..is used only for green manuring.
2002   Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 29 June (Life section) 10/1 (headline)    Green manuring makes a comeback from grandpa's day.

1821—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green meat   n. now regional and rare food or fodder consisting of green herbs, plants, or vegetables; also in plural.

c1450   Practica Phisicalia John of Burgundy in H. Schöffler Mittelengl. Medizinlit. (1919) 229 (MED)   Let hym ete no frute nyr no grene-mete nyr no whyȝt mete.
a1475   J. Russell Bk. Nurture (Harl. 4011) in Babees Bk. (2002) i. 124   Beware of saladis, grene metis, & of frutes rawe.
1566   T. Blundeville Arte of Rydynge (rev. ed.) iii. lxxxix. f. 62, in Fower Offices Horsemanshippe   Horses be often grieued with griefe in the splen, and specially in Sommer season wyth gredy eatyng of sweete greene meates.
1607   E. Topsell Hist. Foure-footed Beastes 75   From April vnto Iune giue them grasse, and such greene meat as may be found abroad.
1736   S. Pegge Alphabet of Kenticisms (E.D.S.) (at cited word)   To soil horses, is to scour or purge 'em, by giving 'em green meat, as tares, green clover, and the like.
1888   F. T. Elworthy W. Somerset Word-bk. at Green-meat   There idn nothin in the wordle do do osses so much good this time o' the year 's a bit o' green-mate.
1927   W. de la Mare Told Again 162   As for ‘tops’ [sc. turnip tops], there were enough of them..to keep a widow and nine children in green-meat for a hundred years.

c1450—1927(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Mountain State   n. U.S. the State of Vermont.

1828   Torch Light (Hagers-town, Maryland) 25 Sept. 1/5   The case of the administration has been completely triumphant throughout the Green Mountain State.
1948   Vermont Q. July 74   It is of much historic interest to the Green Mountain State.
2000   Book Sept. 6/1   Paula Routly..is co-publisher and editor of Seven Days, the alternative weekly in Burlington, Vermont. She came to the Green Mountain State in 1978.

1828—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  green muse   n.  [Compare French muse verte (1865 or earlier).] now rare absinthe.

1878   Spirit of Times 19 Jan. 672/1   In any one of the cafés on the Boulevard, dozens of persons may be seen sipping the ‘green muse’ as poor French writers, slaves to the drug which gives a momentary spur to their fagged and jaded minds, have poetically termed it.
1997   Icon Thoughtstyle Mag. Apr. 42/1   Also called the green muse by its admirers, within a short time absinthe was known as ‘bottled madness.’

1878—1997(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green oil   n. any of various green-coloured oils, esp.  (a) oil pressed from unripe olives;  (b) U.S. regional = petroleum n.   (now rare);  (c) = anthracene oil n. at anthracene n. Compounds 3   (now chiefly historical).

1607   E. Topsell Hist. Foure-footed Beastes 250   Two ounces of this Goates-greace and a pinte of greene Oyle mixed together.
1747   R. James Pharmacopœia Universalis 749   Take of the green Oil, three Pounds; of yellow Wax, ten Ounces.
1814   S. Weston Persian Distichs various Authors 91   Ottar ogul, odour of roses was the green oil of the Psalmist, which we translate fresh oil; but the true ottar..has a greenish cast.
1867   Amer. Jrnl. Sci. 93 346   I was..informed that no ‘green oil’ (petroleum) springs existed upon that estate.
1873   Chem. News 7 Mar. 115/1   Sometimes there is obtained a further distillate known as green oil, green grease, or heavy pitch oil, the residue in the boiler being pitch.
1938   R. Hum Chem. for Engin. Students xvi. 390   Green or anthracene oil is also used for preserving wood, and as fuel.
1992   A. Bell tr. M. Toussaint-Samat Hist. Food vii. 215   The Romans in their day liked ‘green oil’, pressed from olives still hard and bitter.
2003   Competition Sci. Vision‎ May 347/2   Anthracene oil (green oil).

1607—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green olive   n. an unripe olive, harvested before its colour darkens (when it becomes a naturally ripened black olive).

1562   W. Bullein Bulwarke of Defence f. 31   He..sayth in Asia, beyonde the Countrye of the blacke Trions, the Wheate graines bee as bigge as grene oliues, which bee as big as Nutmegges.
1678   tr. M. Charas Royal Pharmacopœa ii. i. 197   Green Olives are not in a condition to afford much Oyl.
1766   T. Smollett Trav. France & Italy I. xvi. 264   The very finest, called virgin oil, is made chiefly of green olives, and sold at a very high price.
1889   P. L. Simmonds Trop. Agric. (ed. 3) §v. 394   The green olives are put into a solution of salt; they are kept there for some time, to cause them to lose their natural bitter taste.
1954   Life 19 Apr. 79/2   Curried lamb circled from left by guava jelly,..chopped green olives, chopped bacon.
2005   N.Y. Mag. 18 July 54/1   Green olives are chewy, often stuffed with almonds, garlic, or feta cheese.

1562—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  green oyster   n.  (a) a green-finned oyster, formerly regarded as a delicacy (now historical);  (b) Australian = oyster-green n. at oyster n. and adj. Compounds 3   (obsolete rare).

1667   T. Sprat Hist. Royal-Soc. 307 (heading)    The history of the generation and ordering of green-oysters, commonly called Colchester-oysters.
1726   tr. B. L. de Muralt Lett. Describing Char. & Customs Eng. & French Nations 39   Delicious green Oysters, and Roast-Beef.
1858   T. C. Eyton Hist. Oyster 27   The ‘green Oyster’ formerly in such high repute, is now gone out of fashion.
1890   F. M. Bailey Catal. Indigenous & Naturalized Plants Queensland 99/2   Green Oyster. Ulva Lactuca.
1992   A. Bell tr. M. Toussaint-Samat Hist. Food xii. 389   The vertes or green oysters of Marennes were also known, and..were already being refined in the special basins called claires.

1667—1992(Hide quotations)

 

  Green Paper   n. (in the United Kingdom and similar jurisdictions) a preliminary report, formerly printed on pale green paper, which sets out government proposals in order to stimulate discussion.

1967   K. Robinson in Hansard Commons 6 Nov. 644   I wish to make a statement concerning the administrative structure of the medical and related services for which I am responsible. I shall..set out my views, probably in the form of a Green Paper, as a basis for public discussion and wide consultation.
1985   Daily Tel. 4 June 6/6   Supplementary benefit, criticised by the Green Paper as too difficult for claimants to understand and too complex for staff to run.
2004   H. Kennedy Just Law (2005) xi. 245   A Green Paper to look at the fundamental causes of crime has been scotched by the Treasury.

1967—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green peril   n. now rare absinthe.

1905   Westm. Gaz. 4 May 12/1   Some statistics..of the growth of the absinthe habit in France seem to justify the alarmists who speak of the beverage as ‘the green peril’.
1908   Daily Chron. 21 May 1/5   This taxing of the ‘green peril’ will no doubt be popular.
2000   Food Arts Jan.–Feb. 19/2   The bitter-tasting apéritif was also dubbed the ‘green peril’, considered a debilitating narcotic, hallucinogen, [etc.].

1905—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  green plot   n. = grass plot n.

1566   T. Blundeville Arte of Rydynge (rev. ed.) xcviii. f. 72v, in Fower Offices Horsemanshippe   When you would haue him to stale, lette it be eyther vpon plentye of strawe, or vpon some grene plotte, or else in a sheps coate, the sauor whereof will greatly prouoke hym to stale.
1600   R. Surflet tr. C. Estienne & J. Liébault Maison Rustique i. ii. 2   Wee must dresse some well defensed piece of ground or greenplot for fruits.
1712   J. James tr. A.-J. Dézallier d'Argenville Theory & Pract. Gardening 28   A large double Walk, and a Green-Plot in the Middle.
1828   H. D. Best Italy 410   It is approached by a neglected, unplanted, unfenced green-plot.
1999   Derby Evening Tel. (Nexis) 21 May 5   Thieves may have scuppered the chances of an award-winning green plot retaining its title as Derby's best school garden.

1566—1999(Hide quotations)

 

  green pound   n. the exchange rate for the pound (occasionally also that for the Irish punt) formerly applied to payments for agricultural produce made under the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union and its predecessors.The green pound and similar ‘green’ currencies were abolished on the introduction of European Monetary Union in 1999.

1974   Times 2 Sept. 1/4   The Irish, as food exporters, have been urging a reduction in the green pound because it would raise prices paid to their farmers and cut taxes at present levied on such exports as beef.
1974   Financial Times 14 Sept. 12/3   Britain and Ireland have what is labelled a Green Pound because sterling is floating in relation to the currencies of other EEC members.
1997   Farmers Guardian 19 Sept. 13/8   Successive revaluations of the green pound have now knocked over 4p per litre off milk prices.

1974—1997(Hide quotations)

 

  green ray   n.  [in sense (b)   apparently translating French rayon vert, in J. Verne Le rayon-vert (1882)]  (a) a ray of light that gives a sensation of green when perceived; usually in plural;  (b) = green flash n.

1705   C. Purshall Ess. Mechanism Macrocosm 221   That Glass has power only to separate the Green Rays of Light.
1864   Chem. News 30 Jan. 54/1   Chloride of sodium especially has the property of obscuring the green ray.
1883   Derby Mercury 10 Oct. 6/2   The maid says she has no objection to marriage, but she cannot think of it till she has seen ‘the green ray’—i.e., the last ray of the setting sun.
1902   A. M. Clerke Pop. Hist. Astron. (ed. 4) xii. 402   All of these gave the green ray fundamental to the nebular spectrum.
1996   A. Theroux Secondary Colors 257   When these color rays pass through the lipophores, just under the epidermis, the blue and violet rays are absorbed and only the green rays escape.
2002   J. Eugenides Middlesex iv. 448   ‘You ever see a green ray?.. They say you can't take a picture of a green ray, but I got one.’

1705—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green revolution   n.  (a) a great increase in the production of cereal crops in a developing country following the introduction of high-yield varieties and the application of scientific methods to agriculture;  (b) a dramatic increase in support for or adoption of environmentalist principles or practices.

1968   W. S. Gaud 8 Mar. in Proc. 10th World Conf. Soc. Internat. Devel. (1969) 236   These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution... I call it the Green Revolution.
1980   Times 2 Sept. 3/7   The party [sc. the Ecology Party] claims to offer a radical alternative outside the terms of reference of the main parties, ‘a green revolution to bring life and vitality back to the wasteland of contemporary politics’.
2006   D. Edgerton Shock of Old (2008) iii. 65   The green revolution in the poor countries mitigated a growing divergence between the agriculture of the rich world and that of the poor.
2008   N.Y. Times Mag. 20 Apr. 50/1   There is a danger..that the rewards of a green revolution could be confined to an ‘eco-elite’ of people building solar homes and driving hybrids.

1968—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green road   n. a grassy track or road; a farm road giving access to fields, etc.; an untarred road; see also quot. 1938.

[1458   in C. Innes & P. Chalmers Liber Aberbrothoc (1856) II. 104   And swa sowth..to the furd of Dersy vest the greyn rod.]
1798   W. Windham Diary (1866) 2 Mar. 389   Delightful ride, in delightful day, through green roads..to Braywick.
1812   Sporting Mag. Feb. 230/2   She [sc. a hare]..crossed the green roads leading to Brighton Race Course, on to Bevendean.
1865   Rep. Cases Queen's Bench 4 177   One of them..was a stoned road, the others were for the most part what are termed ‘green roads’, with gates wherever a hedge intersected them.
1900   D. W. Lewin in Eng. Dial. Dict. II. 718/1   [Kent] We call them green-roads.
1938   Oxoniensia 3 9   These limits embrace all the country between..the Northamptonshire forest-land on the one hand, and, on the other, all the land immediately visible or accessible from the ‘green road’ leading from the eastern counties to the Wiltshire Downs.
1943   Notes & Queries 175 203   Green-road. Farm-road to fields. Kent.
1991   S. Barry Prayers of Sherkin ii, in Plays: One (1997) 92   There is no high path to the farms, no green road to the middle farms, no metalled road to the school.

1798—1991(Hide quotations)

 

  green rod   n. the rod borne as the symbol of office by the Gentleman-ushers of the Order of the Thistle.

1721   in A. Ramsay Poems I. (List of Subscribers)   Usher of the Green Rod, and daily Waiter to his Majesty.
1869   J. E. Cussans Handbk. Heraldry (rev. ed.) xviii. 235   The Officers attached to this Noble Order [of the Thistle] are: the Dean; Lord Lyon, King-at-Arms; and the Usher of the Green Rod.
1998   Times (Nexis) 15 Jan.   Its direct history, and all the paraphernalia that goes with it—the magnificent green mantle,..the Green Rod..which is carried in procession to St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh, and the badges with their St Andrew's Crosses—go back to James VII of Scotland.

1721—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green roof   n. a roof covered with vegetation, esp. one intended to provide environmental benefits.

1984   J. Littler & R. Thomas Design with Energy 91   ‘Green roofs’ are those covered with vegetation, usually grass. Their chief attraction is probably visual.
1993   Vancouver Sun (Nexis) 6 Feb. b1   The German League of Cities concluded that flat ‘green’ roofs save energy by insulating the building from heat and cold.
2005   Guardian 12 Aug. i. 9/3   Green roofs..tend to be used by architects for visual reasons or to help with insulation and drainage, rather than to attract wildlife.

1984—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  green rushes   n. now historical fresh rushes spread on the floor of a house in honour of an esteemed guest who is a stranger; hence formerly as an exclamation of surprise or welcome on seeing a person who has been absent a long while; also in extended use.

1546   J. Heywood Dialogue Prouerbes Eng. Tongue ii. iii. sig. Gii   Streight as tholde wife vs espide..Grene rushes for this stranger, strewe here (quoth she).
1589   R. Greene Menaphon sig. K3   Indeede Doron..it is long since wee met,..when you come you shall haue greene rushes you are such a straunger.
1602   N. Breton Wonders worth Hearing (Grosart) 5   Greene rushes. M. Francisco it is a wonder to see you heere in this Country.
c1605  (?a1500)    London Lickpenny (Harl. 367) l. 75 in Anglia (1898) 20 417   Ryshes grene an other gan greete.
1823   W. Scott Quentin Durward I. vii. 126   The Gothic apartment in which they generally met was, therefore, hastily put into the best order; their grooms were dispatched to collect green rushes to spread upon the floor.
1914   M. R. Warren Robin Hood & his Merry Men vi. 92   It was almost midnight before the guests were conducted to their beds. The floors were strewn with green rushes, while the beds were spread with linen that had lain in sweet herbs.
2001   A. Franklin & P. Mason Lammas i. i. 23   The woman of the house would don a new white apron and prepare to cook them [sc. potatoes], covering the kitchen floor with green rushes in their honor.

1546—2001(Hide quotations)

 

  green salad   n. a salad composed chiefly of green ingredients such as lettuce, chicory, cucumber, watercress, etc.

1675   L. Addison Present State Jews xviii. 173   The fourth Dish, is a green Salad attended with Vinegre, in which they dipping the Salad, call to minde the sower herbs wherewith their Fathers were commanded to eat the Passover.
1756   T. Turner Diary 19 June (1984) (modernized text) 46   My wife and I spent the even at my father Slater's. We dined off some rashers of pork and green salad.
1891   A. B. Marshall Larger Cookery Bk. x. 416   Green Salad à la Bretonne... Take two hearts of well-washed and dried crisp lettuce.
1939   Vogue's Cookery Bk. 69   Fennel is another herb that adds distinction to an ordinary green salad.
2007   New Yorker 23 July 24/1   The waitress..brought over a salmon burger for Riese and a green salad for the banker.

1675—2007(Hide quotations)

 

  green-salted adj. (of an animal hide) salted down without tanning; cf. sense A. 6b.

1833   Ohio Repository 27 Sept. 4/6 (advt.)    To tanners. The subscriber takes leave to inform his customers & the trade at large, that he has just received his fall stock of hides, consisting of..1300 green salted patna kips.
1885   C. T. Davis Manuf. Leather i. 55   Green salted [hides] are those that have been salted and are thoroughly cured.
1988   Jrnl. Commerce (Nexis) 29 Apr. b8   In order to have an idea about what the U.S. market offers, they are interested in receiving price quotations for wet blue, green-salted hides and crusts, and finished leathers.

1833—1988(Hide quotations)

 

  green screen   n. Cinematography and Television a version of the chromakey technique for combining two images, in which the background colour used is green; (also) a green background used for this; frequently attributive; cf. blue screen n. 1   and chromakey n.Green screens are used more often than blue screens in digital filming because digital cameras are typically more sensitive to green light than to blue.

1983   Cinefantastique Sept. 58 (caption)    Green screen backgrounds—as opposed to blue screen—were generally preferred because they tended to produce less video ‘noise’ and ‘static’ during compositing.
1995   C. Carter Truth is out There Behind the Scenes 35   Blue jeans are fine: she'll use a green-screen if necessary to pull off the shot.
1998   Interzone Dec. 39/2   We've wire-removed, rotoed and comped every greenscreen shot we can.
2006   N. Reardon On Camera viii. 127   She stands in front of the green screen. That is where the weather map that you see at home is electronically projected.
2009   R. Martin Reel Truth xv. 488   Lighting for green screen is not something most aspiring filmmakers can learn from repeated viewings of director's commentaries of Sin City 2, 300, or Beowulf.

1983—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  green seal   n. and adj.  (a) n. wine distinguished by a green seal on the cork;  (b) adj. designating such wine.Cf. yellow seal n. and adj. at yellow adj. and n. Compounds 2a.

1823   J. G. Lockhart Reginald Dalton I. i. x. 116   If there was but one bottle of wine in my cellar, they should have it. Betty—Betty, my dear, you know best about such things—just desire the Bishop to fetch some of the old green seal.
1853   Literary World 2 Apr. 271/1   At the sergeant's wedding supper he put the famous green-seal bottle between himself and his bride, and the two had it all to themselves.
1871   ‘M. Legrand’ Cambr. Freshman 8   After having discussed a bottle of his particular green-seal claret.
1885   Belgravia Feb. 493   Go and decant some green seal at once, will you.
1906   J. J. Black Eating to Live 305   Their Green Seal wine was formerly popular.
1999   Lancaster (Pa.) New Era (Nexis) 15 Jan. a10   The stunned chief executive arose..rode back to Wheatland (where he probably fortified himself with a bottle of Reigart's Old Green Seal madeira).

1823—1999(Hide quotations)

 

  green shaving   n. now rare the action of shaving the flesh side of an untanned animal hide; cf. sense A. 6b.

1885   Harper's Mag. Jan. 275/1   The hides are next trimmed with a knife..and ‘green-shaving’ in turn removes the roughness from the flesh side of the skin.
1899   Leather Manufacturer Sept. 100/2   Considerable skill is required in the green shaving.

1885—1899(Hide quotations)

 

  green shoots   n. figurative signs of growth or renewal; (now) spec. indications of economic recovery following a period of recession; also occasionally in singular.

1849   D. Wilson Pilgrim Fathers xvi, in W. H. Stowell Hist. Puritans in Eng. 481   The refugees of New England had no choice but to banish or to be banished; to root out the green shoots of emigrant Prelacy, or to let it grow.
1976   Economist 27 Mar. (Survey) 3/2   At that time the first green shoots of a new Australian self-sufficiency were already visible.
1983   Globe & Mail (Toronto) (Nexis) 1 July   Every fresh green shoot of economic growth risks being trampled by economists arriving to analyze its significance.
1992   New Republic 13 Apr. 19/1   Every week in the last four months of 1991 was marked by predictions from one minister or another that the recession was about to end. The ‘green shoots’ of recovery were now showing.
2009   N.Y. Rev. Bks. 11 June 73/1   We have seen some deceleration in the rate of economic decline, and many people are saying that ‘green shoots’ are showing.

1849—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  green soil   n. now rare soil in which vegetable crops may be raised; a soil of this type.

1794   D. Ure Gen. View Agric. Roxburgh 9   The soils under tillage, are commonly arranged into two kinds, namely, light and clayey. The former is called turnip, or green soil.
1900   Univ. Tennessee Rec. Mar. 56   The yield of cowpeas will increase on these ‘green’ soils during the second and succeeding years.

1794—1900(Hide quotations)

 

  green-soil   v. now rare transitive to provide with green soil; (also) to sow (land) with seeds for green manure.

1859   Sydney Mag. Sci. & Art 2 204   I was so struck by this seeming folly, that I inquired of one of these gentlemen why he did not ‘green soil’ these lands, instead of abandoning them to weeds and desolation.
1899   H. R. Haggard in Longman's Mag. May 45   Our original idea was to greensoil the whole of this little field.
1904   Louisiana Planter & Sugar Manufacturer 3 Dec. 385/2   The committee..agreed that..the use of chemical fertilizers should be discontinued, and that the land be allowed to lie fallow or be green-soiled.

1859—1904(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green space   n. an area of grass or other vegetation; (in later use) esp. one maintained or designed for recreational or aesthetic purposes in an urban area; land of this type.

a1770   M. Akenside Ode to Evening-Star ix, in Poems (1772) 288   See the green space..Where one old oak his awful shade Extends o'er half the level mead Inclos'd in woods profound.
1846   H. H. William Rom. Traitor viii. 124   There was a small green space by the wayside, covered with mossy turf.
1888   R. Lanciani Anc. Rome in Light of Recent Discov. iv. 74   Towards the end of the third century after Christ there were in ancient Rome eight campi or commons, green spaces set apart mostly for foot-races and gymnastic exercises.
1943   Amer. Jrnl. Sociol. 48 481/2   The new metropolitan district of the airplane age will thus include within its sphere of influence..open green spaces surrounding its taller buildings.
1995   Leisure Managem. Aug. 2/3   The need for a national agency for urban greenspace—a long-standing part of ILAM's Campaign for Leisure.
2008   Guardian 20 May (G2 section) 19/1   Green spaces are packed with everyone from tai chi practitioners and inline skaters to groups of circuit trainers.

a1770—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green-stain   v. poetic rare transitive to stain green.

1856   T. Aird Poet. Wks. (new ed.) 22   Clover leaves green-stain his corduroys.

1856—1856(Hide quotations)

 
 

green-staves   n. Obsolete a person who carries a green staff or staves.

a1618   J. Sylvester Hymn of Alms in tr. G. de S. Du Bartas Diuine Weekes & Wks. (1621) 1026   But reverend Green-Staves, what's all this to you?

a1618—a1618(Hide quotations)

 

  greenstick adj. Medicine attributive designating a type of bone fracture typically seen in children, in which the cortex of one side of the bone is cracked and that of the other side is bent, but the continuity of the bone is maintained.

[1676   R. Wiseman Severall Chirurg. Treat. vii. i. 465   There is also a Curvednesse, which may be reduced to a Fracture... It is as it were when you break a green Stick; it breaks, but separates not.]
1850   J. A. Orr Princ. Surg. ii. xi. 153   Green-stick fracture is when some osseous fibres only have given way.
1931   E. Linklater Juan in Amer. ii. viii. 116   The bullet..entered sideways and lodged against his collar-bone, which suffered a greenstick fracture.
2005   Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne) (Nexis) 7 Aug. 84   He suffered internal injuries and a greenstick fracture of the arm during the game.

1850—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  green-striper   n. Navy slang an electrical engineer officer in the Royal Navy, whose uniform originally featured a green stripe on the sleeve.

1948   E. Partridge et al. Dict. Forces' Slang 87   Green Striper, an officer in the Special Branch of the R.N.V.R. who wears an emerald-green stripe between the gold lace on his sleeves.
1951   A. H. Cherry Yankee R.N. 417   The third was Lieut. Archie Pitt, Starling's green-striper Asdic specialist.
1995   R. C. Weyman In Love & War 30   I introduced myself to the officer in charge of the radar equipment.., a ‘green-striper’.

1948—1995(Hide quotations)

 

  green stuff   n.  [perhaps compare Norwegian grønsaker, Swedish grönsaker, Danish grønsager (plural) greens, vegetables]  (a) vegetation, foliage; green vegetables or salad leaves; also in plural;  (b) slang (originally and chiefly U.S.) cash, money; frequently with the.

[1622   J. Mabbe tr. M. Alemán Rogue ii. iv. 275   At supper we had a sallat, but a very poore one, and a great deale of chopt greene stuffe, (I know not what) amongst it.]
1778   A. Wight Present State Husbandry in Scotl. I. iii. 209   Their dung and piss will enrich the ground much more than the green stuff ploughed in.
1851   H. Mayhew London Labour II. 97/1   Street sellers of ‘green stuff’, including water-cresses, chickweed and gru'n'sel, turf, &c.
1887   G. H. Devol Forty Years Gambler on Mississippi 207   Bill of course cleaned the crowd out, and reached the wharf-boat with a large roll of the good green stuff.
1895   Atlantic Monthly Mar. 340   Fields of greenstuff and forage.
1950   Pop. Mech. Jan. 166/2   Somebody was tapping a certain PX cash register of that precious green stuff.
2004   Global May 70/1   Credit cards are readily accepted almost everywhere. Needless to say, if you're heading off to more remote places a supply of the green stuff is always advisable.
2006   Cage & Aviary Birds 1 June 6/6   I have been feeding my birds different greenstuffs over the years, but I now have the ultimate in greens.

1778—2006(Hide quotations)

 

  green syrup   n. (in sugar manufacture) the syrup which flows off from the loaves (loaf n.1 3).

1830   G. R. Porter Nature & Properties Sugar Cane xviii. 267   This first draining is called green syrup, on account of the new or green state of the sugar from which it runs.
1889   Times 19 Aug. 4/6   It was also somewhat impure and dirty, the loaves not being properly washed and the green syrup not being removed.
2000   C. C. Chou Handbk. Sugar Refining ii. xvii. 333   The syrup is discharged as wash and green syrup.

1830—2000(Hide quotations)

 

green tar   n. Obsolete a naturally occurring asphalt having a greenish colour.

1737   S.-Carolina Gaz. 19 Mar. 2/2 (advt.)    It hath also sufficient quantity of high Land proper for Tarr, Pitch, Turpentine and Green Tarr.
1750   G. Hughes Nat. Hist. Barbados ii. 50   As our most remarkable Fossils are of the Bituminous Kind, I shall begin with the green Tar. This is an oily Bitumonus Exudation..of a dirty Black, inclining to a Green.
1865   G. W. Gesner A. Gesner's Pract. Treat. Coal (ed. 2) ii. 43   There is a petroleum spring in St. Andrew's parish, Barbadoes. The product of this spring has been sold under the name of ‘green tar’, and ‘Barbadoes tar’.

1737—1865(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green tea   n. tea made from unfermented leaves, typically pale in colour and sometimes slightly astringent in flavour; (also) the leaves themselves.

1704   London Gaz. No. 4059/4   Green and Bohee Tea.
1708   Brit. Apollo 29–31 Dec.   Green Tea..Resolves, and Attenuates.
1769   W. Buchan Domest. Med. ii. 434   I have frequently known the heart-burn cured..by chewing green tea.
1832   E. Lankester Veg. Substances Food 379   There are three kinds of green tea..one called hyson, hayssuen, is composed of leaves..carefully picked.
1856   C. S. Stewart Brazil & La Plata xxvii. 358   [They] sat down to a supper of ‘pain perdu’ and green tea.
1937   Amer. Home Apr. 122/4   In Ceylon and India most of the tea is black tea, while in China and Japan green tea represents more than half of the manufacture.
1989   J. Melville Haiku for Hanae (1990) xi. 101   She brought green tea and small bean-jam cakes individually wrapped in soft rice-paper.
2005   New Scientist 26 Mar. 20/3   The anti-cancer compound in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG, works by blocking the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase.

1704—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  green thumb   n. North American = green fingers n., esp. in to have a green thumb .

1937   Ironwood (Mich.) Daily Globe 9 July 6/2   Besides being green-eyed, Miss Dvorak has what is known as ‘the green thumb.’ That's horticultural slang for being a successful gardener with instinctive understanding of growing things.
1943   R. Carson Bride saw Red xvii. 203   Plants don't grow for me, but my wife's got a green thumb.
1962   Listener 19 July 89/1   Every kind of briar, of bush rose, of rare bulb, and flowering tree flourished under her green thumb.
2000   J. Cummings World Food: Thailand 187   If you have a green thumb and the space for cultivation, Thai herbs such as lemongrass and holy basil can easily be grown in a hothouse.

1937—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  green-thumbed adj. North American = green-fingered adj.

1937   Washington Post 6 June f4/2   He is, I think, the ‘green-thumbed’ type of gardener, who has lived and loved his flowers and has learned from them and from the soil.
1986   Cincinnati Mag. Aug. 93/3   Many home gardeners have the green-thumbed ability to coax water lilies out of stone, so to speak.
2007   B. Braddock Down in Orburndale ii. 13   The front yard..was lush with shrubbery and ablaze with azaleas and poinsettias, a tribute to my green-thumbed parents.

1937—2007(Hide quotations)

 
 

  Green Thursday   n. (esp. in German-speaking contexts) the Thursday before Good Friday; Maundy Thursday.  [After German Gründonnerstag (in Middle High German as a phrasal construction, grüene donerstac; compare also Middle Dutch groene Donderdag, Middle Low German grȫne donrestach); the ultimate origin and motivation of the name is uncertain.]

1854   A. M. Howitt Art-Student in Munich xxiii. 263   A blessed feeling of all the beauty..in the bursting of buds, in the up-springing of weeds and flowers, and in the carolling of birds—such are my memories of the ‘Vesper’ in the Hof-Kapelle on Green Thursday.
1870   Harper's Mag. Oct. 746/1   Cives, especially if eaten on Green-Thursday, protect against the evil-eye.
2003   Church Times 11 Apr. 9/1   Herb Pudding has a Danish equivalent for Maundy Thursday (or ‘Green Thursday’) called Borecole.

1854—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green time   n. the length of time for which a traffic signal displays a green light; (also) the length of time for which a vehicle can travel through a series of traffic signals without encountering a red or amber light.

1945   Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier 7 May 5/5   Feature of the signal will be to provide more of a balance between the interval of green time and the interval of red time.
1952   N.Y. Times 4 Aug. 23/7   The lights will be geared to a modified progressive cycle that will allow equal ‘green’ time to travelers in both directions and should enable motorists to average about six blocks between red lights.
1998   R. Cervero Transit Metropolis 310   Green time in outlying sectors will be shortened to reduce the discharge rate of inflowing traffic.

1945—1998(Hide quotations)

 

  green ware   n.  (a) = green stuff n.   (obsolete);  (b) unfired ceramics (see sense A. 6e).

1736   W. Ellis New Exper. Husbandry 109   Feeding his Ews, when no other Green Ware is to be had [sc. than rye].
1742   W. Ellis Mod. Husbandman July xvii. 104   Turneps, Clover, and other Green-ware.
1833   Gazetteer State of Pennsylvania i. 62   Four furnaces for hollow green ware at Philadelphia.
a1884   E. H. Knight Pract. Dict. Mech. Suppl. 423/1   Green Ware (Ceramics), articles just molded or otherwise shaped, before drying and baking.
1922   Jrnl. Amer. Ceramic Soc. 5 498   The average weight of one car loaded with green ware ready for the kiln is slightly over ten thousand pounds.
1999   M. Ostermann New Maiolica vii. 143/1   The buff-coloured greenware was sprayed with a heavy zircon-whitened slip before bisquing to 1120°C.

1736—1999(Hide quotations)

 

  greenway   n.  (a) a grassy path or way; (figurative) the pleasant path, the ‘broad way’ (cf. primrose path n.);  (b) chiefly U.S. a piece of undeveloped land near an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental conservation.In earlier versions of quot. a1300   there appears to have been confusion between the rhyming words.

OE   Bounds (Sawyer 1347) in D. Hooke Worcs. Anglo-Saxon Charter-bounds (1990) 308   On þære dic on þa dene þæt andlong dene on þone grenan weg.
OE   Paris Psalter (1932) cxli. 4   On þyssum grenan wege, þe ic gange on, me oferhydige æghwær setton gearwe grine.
lOE   Bounds (Sawyer 811) in W. de G. Birch Cartularium Saxonicum (1893) III. 655   Of writeles þorne andlang þæs grenan weges to wuda huw on butan þæt hit cymð hut æt beorhtulfes treowe.
a1300  (?c1175)    Poema Morale (Jesus Oxf.) l. 335 in R. Morris Old Eng. Misc. (1872) 70   Lete we þeo brode stret and þene wey grene..Go we þene narewe wey, þene wey so schene [a1200 Trin. Cambr. [L]ate we þe brode strate and þane weg bene..Go we þane narewe pað and þene wei grene].
c1300   Holy Cross (Laud) l. 179 in C. Horstmann Early S.-Eng. Legendary (1887) 6   Ȝwane þou comest to þe heued of þis valeie, a grene wei þov schalt wiende, Þat gez euene riȝt puyr est, and to parays gez þat on ende.
c1325   in M. Gelling & D. M. Stenton Place-names Oxfordshire (1953) I. 201   Seynt Edburghes grene wey.
a1400   Ancrene Riwle (Pepys) (1976) 92   Swyche men & wymmen..leden þe folk in a grene waye toward helle, For grene waie is soft and fair, & so ben her wordes.
c1460   in A. Clark Eng. Reg. Oseney Abbey (1907) 139 (MED)   Þe forsaide Abbot..had A Grene waye fro the towne of ledewell unto þe forsaide felde.
1645   J. Milton Sonnet ix, in Poems 50   Lady that in the prime of earliest youth, Wisely hast shun'd the broad way and the green.
1895   W. Rye Gloss. Words E. Anglia   Green Way, a road over turf between hedges, usually without gates.
1943   Notes & Queries 9 Oct. 234   Wood-riding, green way across a wood. Northants.
1965   Washington Post 8 Apr. f3/2   Preservation of natural form and foliage and clustering of usable land space..in a common green-way at the rear of the development.
1970   Times 26 Aug. 10/3   A plan for turning two railway lines..into greenways for walkers, horseriders, and cyclists.
1999   Nature Conservancy Sept. 30/2   The Berkeley Triangle Project will transfer acreage to several state agencies to create a 10,000-acre greenway that will include protected habitat for threatened northern pine snakes.

OE—1999(Hide quotations)

 

  green whey   n. Cheese-making the pale green or greenish-yellow whey which separates naturally from the curd during coagulation, esp. as opposed to whey which is expressed from the curd at a later stage; cf. white whey at whey n. 1b.

1708   Rider's Brit. Merlin May sig. B5   Green Whey excellent against Cholar.
1819   Farmer's Mag. Feb. 65   In some instances, what is called ‘the green whey’, or that which is taken from the cheese-tub after the curd is formed, and the ‘white’, or that which is expressed from the curd itself, are at first treated separately.
1912   J. P. Sheldon Dairying 368   The curd..is allowed to settle for a time, during which the green whey comes out of it freely, the whey coming upwards, the curd settling downwards in the kettle.
2005   P. Kindstedt Amer. Farmstead Cheese v. 97/1   For most cheeses a sharp, clean split with the accumulation of green whey at the base of the cleavage indicates that the curd is ready for cutting.

1708—2005(Hide quotations)

 
 (b) In names of animals. See also greenback n., greenfly n., greenfinch n., etc.
 

  green anole   n. a green-coloured anole; spec. Anole carolinensis, which is native to south-eastern North America and the Caribbean and is popular as a pet.

1934   Bull. Mus. Compar. Zoöl. Harvard 77 128   Anolis petersii. It is the rather sluggish, heavy bodied, green Anole which is not uncommon in [etc].
1956   Copeia No. 3. 178/2   [List of common names] AnolisAnoles. Anolis carolinensis—Green Anole.
1983   V. Brown Investigating Nature through Outdoor Projects vi. 69   Geckos..and the green anole lizard (sometimes called a chameleon) of the southern states both can climb upside down along ceilings.
2000   Today's Parent Oct. 26/3   In Lizards Don't Wear Lip Gloss, the sisters go up against Angus the green anole, an ornery reptile who escapes from his vivarium.

1934—2000(Hide quotations)

 

  green bass   n. U.S. any of several freshwater basses of the genus Micropterus (family Centrarchidae); esp. the largemouth bass, M. salmoides.

1820   Western Rev. 2 54   Ohio Red-eye. Aplocentrus calliops... Vulgar names Red-eyes, Bride pearch, Batchelor's pearch, Green bass.
1897   Outing 30 438/1   The boys called the rock bass the ‘black bass’, while large and small-mouth black bass were known as ‘green’ bass.
1965   A. J. McClane Standard Fishing Encycl. 473/1   The largemouth bass is regionally known as green bass, green trout, Oswego bass, and black bass.

1820—1965(Hide quotations)

 

green bird   n. Obsolete spec. the greenfinch, Carduelis chloris.

1675   J. Blagrave New Additions to Art Husb. 107   Many Country-People cannot distinguish a Canary from one of our common Green-Birds.
1737   E. Albin Nat. Hist. Eng. Song-birds 29 (heading)    Of the Green-finch, Green-linnet: Or, as it is commonly called, the Green-bird.
1851   H. Mayhew London Labour II. 60/1   Greenfinches (called green birds, or sometimes green linnets, in the streets).

1675—1851(Hide quotations)

 

  green blight   n. now rare (in singular and plural) green aphids (greenfly) collectively.

1843   Zoologist 1 123   The parent fly of this insect was black, with very long transparent wings, like the green blight so often seen upon rose-trees.
1879   W. Rossiter Illustr. Dict. Sci. Terms   Green blights = Aphidæ: insects belonging to Homoptera.
1907   ‘V. Cross’ Life's Shop Window vi. 96   Green blight, in countless thousands, clinging to the rose stems.

1843—1907(Hide quotations)

 

  green-bone   n. any of several fishes with greenish bones, spec.  (a) the garfish or garpike, Belone belone (obsolete);  (b) the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparus;  (c) New Zealand the butterfish, Odax pullus.

1525   in Exc. e Libris Dom. Jac. V (Bannatyne Club) 7   Grenbans, podlokis,..crunans.
1699   R. Sibbald Provision for Poor iii. 23   The red Gurnard, the Brasse, the Greenbone, the Hirling.
1786   North-country Angler xxiii. 77   And there is an eel called a burrabut or green-bone, that is, a viviparous fish.
1805   G. Barry Hist. Orkney iii. i. 291   The Viviparous Blenny (blennius viviparus)..from the colour of the back-bone, has here got the name of greenbone.
1883   E. P. Ramsay Food Fishes New S. Wales 29   Belone ferox, the ‘Long Tom’ of the fishermen, ‘green-bone’, and ‘gar-fish’ of Europeans.
c1920   J. H. Beattie Trad. Lifeways Southern Maori (1994) 501   The kelp fish of Canterbury is the Blue-bone of Nelson and may be the Green-bone of Southland.
1957   A. W. Parrott Sea Angler's Fishes N.Z. 130   It is unfortunate that the Butterfish has been given a variety of local names.., as for example, Kelpfish, Kelp-salmon, Greenbone, and several other names.
1988   G. Lamb Orkney Wordbk.   Green, greenbean the fish, the viviparous blenny, green bone.

1525—1988(Hide quotations)

 

  greenbottle   n. any of several blowflies of a metallic green colour, of the genus Lucilia (family Calliphoridae); esp. the common L. caesar and L. sericata; cf. bluebottle n. 3.In quot. 1828 in a figurative context.

1828   Life in West or Curtain Drawn II. ii. 35   The large blue bottle, the green bottle, the useful and industrious bee, and other ‘flies’ of the like kind.
1844   Chambers's Edinb. Jrnl. 1 June 344/1   Amongst the most familiar of these are the green-bottle, the blue-bottle or flesh-fly, the larder-fly.., the biting house-fly.
1915   A. Teixeira de Mattos tr. J. H. Fabre Hunting Wasps xvi. 280   It is a golden-green Fly, a Green-bottle (Lucilia Cæsar), who lives on putrid flesh.
1998   C. Mims When we Die (1999) v. 121   Next come the specialized flesh-flies such as Lucilia, the greenbottle.

1828—1998(Hide quotations)

 

  green bug   n. now chiefly U.S. any of various green aphids (greenfly) and other green insects that are typically pests of plants; (in later use) esp. the widespread aphid Schizaphis graminum, which infests grasses and cereal crops.

1704   Nat. Hist. vi, in L. Wafer New Voy. & Descr. Isthmus Amer. (ed. 2) 216   The Green-bugg. His Head yellow, above mixt with green; it stinks much.
1741   W. Ellis Mod. Husbandman May xv. 184   An Insect seldom, or never, misses attacking our green Cherries;..we call them Ladlemen, or the Green Fly, or Bug.
1879   J. H. Comstock Rep. Cotton Insects (U.S. Dept. Agric.) Appendix 2. 485   Then there is what is called the green bug. This insect does its mischief by sucking the limbs and branches of the plant.
1908   P. T. Dondlinger Bk. of Wheat x. 180   The Spring Green Aphis (Toxoptera graminum Rond).—This species, popularly called the ‘green bug’, was first described in 1852.
1971   R. E. Pfadt Fund. Appl. Entomol. (ed. 2) ix. 243   The greenbug, a species of aphid, is the most destructive pest of small grains in central and southwestern states.
2006   J. T. Costa Other Insect Societies xi. 290   The southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (L.). This serious crop pest [is] also known as the green vegetable bug, or simply the green bug.

1704—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green cormorant   n. the shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis.

1804   T. Bewick Hist. Brit. Birds II. 390 (heading)    Shag, Skart, Scarfe, or Green Cormorant.
1980   Biogr. Mem. Fellows Royal Soc. 26 233   Bottom left—shag or green cormorant—a bird with various religious associations.

1804—1980(Hide quotations)

 

  green crab   n. a green-coloured crab; esp. the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas, of north Atlantic coasts.

1763   R. Brookes New Syst. Nat. Hist. III. p. xxvii   The Green Crab with red claws, is of the same size as the Blue Crab; but may be easily distinguished from them by their colour.
1863   J. G. Wood Illustr. Nat. Hist. (new ed.) III. 580   Any living thing that can be caught becomes prey to the Green-Crab.
2005   A. Burdick Out of Eden (2006) xxi. 278   If a green crab and a hemigrapsus shore crab are left alone.., will the green crab eat the shore crab?

1763—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  green dolphin   n. now rare the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which attacks peas and other legumes.

1836   Farmer's Mag. Aug. 136/2   On inspection it is discovered that every drooping head is filled with the green dolphin.
1850   Ann. Rep. Commissioner Patents 1849: Agric. 339 in U.S. Congress. Serial Set (31st Congr., 1st Sess.: House of Representatives Executive Doc. 20, Pt. 2) VI   These plants are often smothered with lice, or green-dolphin, as they are termed.
1926   F. V. Theobald Plant Lice Great Brit. I. 132   This common aphid is usually spoken of as the Green Pea Louse or Green Dolphin.

1836—1926(Hide quotations)

 

  green drake   n. a common mayfly of the genus Ephemera; esp. the brown mayfly, E. vulgata; (also) an artificial fly made in imitation of this.

1676   C. Cotton Compl. Angler ii. 323   The Green-drake and Stone-fly.
1787   T. Best Conc. Treat. Angling (ed. 2) 26   Grey-drake, Found in general where the Green-drake is, and in shape and dimensions perfectly the same.
1884   G. F. Braithwaite Salmonidæ Westmorland vi. 26   The most beautiful species of our ephemera, the green and grey drakes.
1990   Fly Fisherman Dec. 15/1   His stonefly and Green Drake imitations were primarily to be fished for trout.

1676—1990(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green eel   n.  (a) any of various green-coloured eels; esp. a form of the common eel, Anguilla anguilla (obsolete);  (b) Australian the yellow moray, Gymnothorax prasinus (now rare).

1653   I. Walton Compl. Angler x. 191   Some curious searchers into the natures of fish, observe that there be several sorts or kinds of Eeles, as the silver-Eele, and green or greenish Eel (with which the River of Thames abounds, and are called Gregs); and a blackish Eele.  
1736   T. Boreman Descr. Great Variety Animals & Veg. iii. 33   The Green Eel is of the bigness of a large common Eel, and like it in shape.
1800   S. Taylor Angling in all its Branches ii. 135   The Green Eel has a broad flat head, and is much flatter towards the tail than the other.
1880   Rep. Royal Comm. Fisheries New S. Wales 35   The ‘green eel’ (Muræna afra) is found abundantly in the holes and crevices of the rocks everywhere.
1922   H. A. Smith Official Year Bk. New S. Wales 1921 84   The commonest species is the green eel (Gymnothorax prasina).

1653—1922(Hide quotations)

 
 

  greeneye   n. any of various small, slender deep-sea fishes that constitute the widespread family Chlorophthalmidae, which have large iridescent green eyes.

1907   H. M. Smith Fishes N. Carolina 140   Genus Chlorophthalmus Bonaparte. Green-eyes. Small, smelt-like fishes with terete, slightly compressed body, long head, [etc.].
1954   Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 106 208   Mr. Henry W. Fowler, Curator of Fishes, reports..from off the New Jersey coast, a new record, the Greeneye, Chlorophthalmus chalybaeus.
1997   G. S. Helfman et al. Diversity of Fishes xvii. 296 (caption)    Deep-sea environment... Representative species are a mesopelagic lanternfish.., benthopelagic rattail and halosaur, and benthic snailfish and greeneye.

1907—1997(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green frog   n. any of various frogs or (rarely) toads, esp. of the genus Rana, that are typically green-coloured; spec. (in later use)  (a) the frog R. clamitans of North America;  (b) any of a group of frogs that includes the European edible frog ( R. esculenta) and its parent species the marsh frog ( R. ridibunda) and the pool frog ( R. lessonae) (also called water frog).

1653   I. Walton Compl. Angler vii. 151   The green Frog..is by Topsel taken to be venemous; and so is the Padock, or Frog-Padock.  
1763   R. Brookes New Syst. Nat. Hist. I. 324   The small Tree Frog, or Green Frog, is distinguished from other kinds by its small size, and green colour.
1832   W. D. Williamson Hist. Maine I. 169   Of the Frog kind are six species:—1. the Toad; 2. the pond Frog; 3. the speckled Frog; 4. the tree Toad; 5. the bull Frog; and 6. the green Frog.
1953   H. S. Zim & H. M. Smith Reptiles & Amphibians v. 133   The Green Frog is smaller..with a yellowish throat, especially in the males.
2002   E. N. Arnold Field Guide Reptiles & Amphibians Brit. & Europe (ed. 2) 88   Water or Green frogs are often noisy, frequently aquatic and usually gregarious.

1653—2002(Hide quotations)

 

  green grosbeak   n. now rare the greenfinch, Carduelis chloris.

1776   T. Pennant Brit. Zool. (ed. 4, octavo) I. 322 (running title)    Green grosbeak.
a1825   R. Forby Vocab. E. Anglia (1830)    Green-olf, the green finch, or, more properly, green grosbeak. Parus viridus.
1905   C. H. M. Gaskell Spring in Shropshire Abbey iv. 179   A lintie (a linnet), a green grosbeak (greenfinch), a Harry redcap (goldfinch).

1776—1905(Hide quotations)

 

  green heron   n. a small heron of North and Central America, Butorides virescens, with a dark greenish back and wings and a chestnut neck.Formerly considered to be conspecific with the striated heron, B. striata, of the Old World.

1785   T. Pennant Arctic Zool. II. ii. 447   Green Heron... Ardea virescens. Lin. Syst. 238... Inhabits from New York to South Carolina.
1855   Knickerbocker 46 222   Night-herons, snowy-herons, green-herons, and little-herons construct their nests so closely together that four or five hundred of them may be counted upon twenty or thirty cedars.
1927   Wilson Bull. 39 81   This report has to do with some observations made in a Green Heron colony during the seasons of 1921 and 1922.
1998   N.Y. Times 5 Apr. 11/4   Winn infects the reader with her enthusiasm for life in the park: ‘A nest!’ (Green herons in the Ramble.) ‘It was a loon!’ (A Gavia immer at the Reservoir.)

1785—1998(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green lacewing   n. any of numerous lacewings that constitute the family Chrysopidae, mostly of the genera Chrysopa and Chrysoperla, which typically have greenish bodies and golden eyes and are the most familiar neuropterans.

[1875   J. C. Melliss St. Helena iii. 171   Chrysopa, Leach. C. congrua, Walk.—One of the green Lace-wing-flies.]
1889   Bull. Agric. Coll. Michigan Exper. Station No. 51. 6   Chrysopa-Flies. These beautiful green lace wings, with their brilliant golden eyes, are no mean factor in this warfare against plant lice.
1947   A. D. Imms Outl. Entomol. (ed. 3) iv. 130   The Hemerobiidae (Brown Lacewings) and Chrysopidae (Green Lacewings) are notably beneficial since their larvae destroy large numbers of Homoptera and other small insects.
2001   BBC Wildlife Sept. 9/2   Green lacewings Chrysopa carnea are among the insects drawn to lit windows and often find their way indoors.

1889—2001(Hide quotations)

 

  green leek   n. Australian (more fully green leek parrot) any of several predominantly green parrots; esp. the superb parrot, Polytelis swainsonii, of south-east Australia.

1845   Bell's Life in Sydney 18 Jan. 3/4   A most extraordinary bird of the parrot species, commonly called the green leek, a native of New South Wales.
1889   Proc. Linn. Soc. New S. Wales 4 418   Trichoglossus concinnus..known as ‘Green-leek’ and ‘Musk-paroquet’.
1945   M. Raymond Smiley 9   He opened the dilly-bag and disclosed a young greenleek parrot.
2009   Daily Tel. (Austral.) (Nexis) 11 May 3   Sometimes referred to as the green leek parrot, the social bird nests in the hollows of the red gums.

1845—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green lizard   n. any of various green-coloured lizards; spec.:  (a) a large lizard, Lacerta viridis (family Lacertidae), found from Iberia to Ukraine;  (b) U.S. the green anole, Anole carolinensis.

1600   R. Surflet tr. C. Estienne & J. Liébault Maison Rustique i. xxviii. 182   Make a powder of a greene lizard, and arsnicke, put it into the eie [sc. of a horse], for to fret awaie the naile.
1685   N. Grew Musæum Regalis Societatis (new ed.) i. 45   The Green Lizard. It was brought from the West-Indies.
1709   J. Lawson New Voy. Carolina 131   Green Lizards are very harmless and beautiful, having a little Bladder under their Throat, which they fill with Wind.
1776   S. Ward Mod. Syst. Nat. Hist. XI. 57   The green lizard is so called from its colour, and is larger than the common sort.
1832   T. Brown Zoologist's Text-bk. I. 291   Lacerta viridis.—The Green Lizard. Bright green, with numerous black or brown points above.
1881   Amer. Naturalist 15 96   The green lizard (Anolis principalis) of the Southern United States is sometimes called the American chameleon.
1973   A. d'A. Bellairs & J. F. D. Frazer Smith's Brit. Amphibians & Reptiles (ed. 5) ii. 17   The introduction of..Lacerta viridis, the Green Lizard, into the south of England has also proved unsuccessful.
2004   Herpetologica 60 193/2   Sightings and photographic records were communicated..by oil workers and biologists who referred to this lizard [sc. Liolaemus gununakuna] as the ‘green lizard’.

1600—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green louse   n. now rare a greenfly or aphid.

1682   tr. J. Goedaert Of Insects §8. 125   The Worm of the 134th. Table, feeds of little creatures, which they call Green Lice; and do lick the fat of Roses.
1703   tr. H. van Oosten Dutch Gardener iv. xii. 223   The green Louse can do hurt.
1827   E. Bevan Honey-bee i. 31   The fecundation of the female aphides or green lice, by the males of one generation, will continue for a year.
1944   Henderson's Garden Guide & Rec. (rev. ed.) 92   Carnation. For Green Lice fumigate or spray [insecticide numbers] 2 or 10.

1682—1944(Hide quotations)

 

  green mamba   n.
West African/ˌɡrin ˈmamba/
either of two venomous green arboreal snakes of the genus Dendroaspis (family Elapidae), found in forests in Africa: the common D. angusticeps of southern Africa, and D. viridis of West Africa.

1862   J. S. Dobie Jrnl. 16 Oct. in S. Afr. Jrnl. (1945) 44   He called it a green mamba and was about 9 feet long.
1912   F. W. Fitzsimons Snakes S. Afr. (ed. 2) vi. 196   Green Mambas are always found in the forests, clumps of tangled creeper-covered bush, and wooded valleys.
1969   J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson Zool. Trop. Afr. iv. 74   Although longer, heavier and more terrestrial than the forest-dwelling green mamba..it [sc. the black mamba] is not confined to the ground.
2003   Jack May 146/1   The Gbayas speak with fear of gòk gòrò, a deadly green tree snake (most probably the green mamba) which sometimes hides inside bees nests.

1862—2003(Hide quotations)

 

  green pigeon   n. any of numerous predominantly green-coloured pigeons constituting the genus Treron, widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia.

1698   J. Fryer New Acct. E.-India & Persia 175   Our usual Diet was (besides plenty of Fish) Water-Fowl, Peacocks, Green Pidgeons, spotted Deer, Sabre, Wild Hogs, and sometimes Wild Cows.
1767   J. Kindersley Let. Nov. (1777) lx. 259   Of the feathered race, peacocks, wild ducks, wild geese, partridges, beccaficos, green pigeons, and a variety of others.
1831   J. Gould Century of Birds Pl. lviii   The present as well as the preceding species, together with several others, are known to the natives of India by the general name of the Green Pigeon.
1928   H. Whistler Pop. Handbk. Indian Birds 297   The Green Pigeon is found almost throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and farther east.
1997   B. McCrea et al. S. Afr.: Rough Guide 405   Look out for the flashing red flight feathers of fruit-eating birds like the purple-crested lourie or green pigeons.

1698—1997(Hide quotations)

 

  green pike   n. North American in later use any of several predatory North American fishes; esp. the walleye, Sander vitreus, and the chain pickerel, Esox niger.In quot. 1804: a gar, Lepidosteus osseus.

1804   G. Shaw Gen. Zool. V. i. 120   Green Pike. Esox Viridis... Native of the seas about Carolina.
1877   Bull. U.S. National Mus. No. 10. 46   Stizostethium vitreum... Wall-eyed Pike... Green Pike.
1920   W. Packard Old Plymouth Trails 330   Esox reticulatus..known sometimes as green pike or jack, but more often as pond pickerel.
1946   F. LaMonte N. Amer. Game Fishes 128   Eastern Pickerel—Esox niger... Green Pike.
1983   G. C. Becker Fishes Wisconsin 871   Walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum... Other common names..green pike.

1804—1983(Hide quotations)

 

  green plover   n.  (a) the lapwing, Vanellus vanellus;  (b) U.S. the American golden plover, Pluvialis dominica.

1550   By Mayre: Myschefes & Hynderaunces of Comon & Publike Welth (single sheet)    Plouers grene of the best, the dosen iii. s.
1624   J. Smith Gen. Hist. Virginia v. 171   Many sorts of Fowles, as..the gray and greene Plouer, some wilde Ducks.
1678   J. Ray tr. F. Willughby Ornithol. 308   The green Plover, Pluvialis viridis.
1754   E. Burt Lett. N. Scotl. I. vii. 154   The Green-Plover or Pewit..is therein called the ungrateful Bird.
1828   W. Scott Tales of Grandfather (1841) 2nd Ser. l. 228/2   That beautiful bird the Green-plover, in Scottish called the Peese-weep.
1888   G. Trumbull Names & Portraits Birds 195   American Golden Plover... At Portsmouth, N.H., and in Massachusetts at Salem and Chatham, Green Plover.
1922   N. Blanchan Game Birds (rev. ed.) ii. 239   American Golden Plover... Called also: Field Plover; Greenback; Green Plover; Pale-breast; [etc.].
1996   S. E. G. Lea & M. Kiley-Worthington in V. Bruce Unsolved Myst. of Mind vii. 229   The Green Plover gets its alternative name of Lapwing from the way it leads potential predators away from its nest by appearing to be injured.

1550—1996(Hide quotations)

 

  green pollack   n. the saithe or coalfish, Pollachius virens; (later also) the pollack, P. pollachius; cf. green cod n. 2a.

1859   S. G. Goodrich Illustr. Nat. Hist. Animal Kingdom II. 455   The Green Pollack, M[erlangus] leptocephalus, is deep green above, silvery-white beneath.
1880–4   F. Day Fishes Great Brit. & Ireland I. 295   Gadus virens..Coal-fish..also locally as..green-cod, green-pollack, gray-lord.
1933   K. Roberts Arundel 6   The green pollocks come up the river by the millions.
1988   T. Scully Viandier of Taillevent 199   Colin... A variety of cod, and resembling it, the coalfish (Pollachius virens: ‘green pollack’) is to be prepared like a cod.

1859—1988(Hide quotations)

 

  green racer   n. U.S. either of two North American colubrid snakes, the blue racer, which is a form or subspecies of the racer ( Coluber constrictor), and the striped whip snake, Masticophis taeniatus.

1860   J. G. Cooper in Explor. & Surv. Railroad Route to Pacific: Zool. Rep. (U.S. War Dept.) 301 (heading)    Bascanion vetustus, Baird & Girard. The Green Racer.
1900   Ann. Rep. Board of Regents Smithsonian Inst. 1898 794   The Zamenis constrictor is the ‘black snake’ of the East and the ‘blue’ and ‘green racer’ of the West.
1957   A. H. Wright & A. A. Wright Handbk. Snakes U.S. & Canada I. 464   Green racer... Masticophis taeniatus schotti.
1977   Condor 79 246/2   The green racer (Coluber constrictor) and bullsnake (Pituophis melanoleucus) together constituted the second most frequently consumed prey group.

1860—1977(Hide quotations)

 

  green sandpiper   n. a small migratory sandpiper, Tringa ochropus, which has a dark greenish-brown back and wings and breeds in subarctic Europe and Asia; (U.S.) the similar solitary sandpiper, T. solitaria.

1766   T. Pennant Brit. Zool. 125   The green Sandpiper.
1829   A. E. Wilson Amer. Ornithol. III. 127   [The solitary sandpiper]..has considerable resemblance, both in manners and markings, to the Green Sandpiper of Europe.
1877   Zoologist 1 524   A Green Sandpiper appeared here, and took up its quarters at a little pool close to the shore.
1917   T. G. Pearson Birds Amer. 245   Solitary sandpiper... Green Sandpiper; American Green Sandpiper.
1999   Guardian 2 Feb. i. 18/7   I arrived to find a green sandpiper busy sinking its bill into the obviously appetising sludge.

1766—1999(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green sea turtle   n. the green turtle, Chelonia mydas.

1833   Christian's Penny Mag. 5 Mar. 165/1   The green sea-turtles generally assemble in numbers: they can remain long under water, and sleep upon it.
1892   W. B. Stevens Through Texas 105/1   People who pay for green sea turtle soup at the rate of about 5c a spoonful can figure out the profit in a 650-pounder.
1921   E. W. Nelson Lower Calif. & its Nat. Resources 135   Green sea turtles are plentiful about the southern coast.
2004   Independent (Compact ed.) 29 Apr. 17/1 (heading)    An experiment by marine biologists working off the coast of Florida has demonstrated the phenomenal ability of the green sea turtle to sense subtle variations in the earth's magnetic field.

1833—2004(Hide quotations)

 

  green sunfish   n. a North American freshwater fish of the genus Lepomis (family Centrarchidae); spec. the common and widespread L. cyanellus, which has a greenish back and markings.

1887   36th Ann. Rep. Indiana State Board Agric. 1886 169   The green sunfish abounds throughout the entire Mississippi Valley.
1949   L. S. Caine N. Amer. Fresh Water Sport Fish 38   Bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus... Colloquial name... Green Sunfish.
1969   D. F. Costello Prairie World ix. 170   Game fish now found in the largest lakes include northern pike, walleye,..crappie, and green sunfish.
2009   Sundance (Wyoming) Times 14 May a16/5   Walleye and tiger musky are stocked in the reservoir to control green sunfish.

1887—2009(Hide quotations)

 

  green swallow   n.  (a) any of several New World swallows of the genus Tachycineta, with greenish-blue plumage; esp. the tree swallow, T. bicolor, of North America; (now rare);  (b) either of two perching birds of Central and South America, the swallow-tailed cotinga, Phibalura flavirostris (family Cotingidae), and the swallow tanager, Tersina viridis (family Thraupidae) (obsolete rare).

1831   R. Jameson Wilson & Bonaparte's Amer. Ornithol. (rev. ed.) II. 48   Hirundo viridis, Wilson.—H. bicolor, Vieill. Green, Blue, or White Bellied Swallow.
1837   W. Swainson On Nat. Hist. & Classif. Birds II. 74   The third aberrant division [of chatterers] is indicated by the European chatterer, the singular fork-tailed genus Phibalura (P. flavirostris Vieil.) and the Procnias ventralis Ill., or green swallow of Brazil.
1849   P. H. Gosse in E. Gosse Life Philip Henry Gosse (1890) viii. 223   Received green swallow from Jamaica.
1903   Catal. Coll. Birds' Eggs Brit. Mus. III. 235   Tachycineta albilinea... The eggs of the Central-American Green Swallow in the Collection measure respectively: ·67 by ·51; ·7 by ·52.

1831—1903(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green toad   n. any of several greenish toads of the genus Bufo; esp. B. viridis of Eurasia and B. debilis of southern North America.

1802   G. Shaw Gen. Zool. III. i. 153   The Green Toad is a native of Germany and some other parts of Europe.
1862   New Amer. Cycl. XV. 512/2   The other European species is the natterjack, mephitic, or green toad (Bufo calamita, Laur.).
1902   Trans. Texas Acad. Sci. 4 101   Budo debilis... Green Toad. As far as my observations go, this species is common in but one locality.
1965   Biol. Bull. 128 218   The European green toad (Bufo viridis) is a surprisingly euryhaline amphibian.
1998   P. C. Rosen et al. in B. Tellman et al. Future Arid Grasslands 68   Green ToadBufo debilis. Seen breeding in large numbers..in shallow grassland temporary ponds.

1802—1998(Hide quotations)

 

  green tree ant   n. a green-bodied arboreal weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, of Asia and northern Australia, which makes nests by stitching leaves together and has a painful bite.

1845   L. Leichhardt Jrnl. Overland Exped. Austral. 16 June (1847) 291   It was at the lower part of the Lynd that we first saw the green-tree ant; which seemed to live in small societies in rude nests between the green leaves of shady trees.
1936   T. C. Roughley Wonders Great Barrier Reef 176   ‘Hell has no fury like a woman scorned,’ wrote Congreve early in the seventeenth century. The green tree-ant was obviously not known then.
2009   Townsville Bull. (Austral.) (Nexis) 4 Apr. 26   In the case of green tree ants, which create white football-sized nests in vegetation such as palms, they were being spurred on by recent plant growth.

1845—2009(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green tree frog   n. any of various green arboreal frogs of the families Hylidae and Rhacophoridae; spec. Hyla arborea of central and southern Europe, H. cinerea of North America, and Litoria caerulea of Australia.

[1673   J. Ray Observ. Journey Low-countries 101   This day we first took notice of the little green Tree-Frogs.]
1739   Philos. Trans. 1737–8 (Royal Soc.) 40 348   Rana viridis arborea. The green Tree Frog. These Frogs are always found sticking to the under Sides of Leaves of Trees.
1885   J. G. Wood Pop. Nat. Hist. 522   The best known species is the common green tree-frog of Europe, now so familiar from its frequent introduction into fern-cases and terrestrial vivaria.
1990   Physiol. Zool. 63 1043   The green tree frog, Litoria caerulea, is distributed widely in Australia.
2006   C. Roots Hibernation iii. 52   European Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)... It is also called the common tree frog and the green tree frog.

1739—2006(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green turtle   n. a large herbivorous sea turtle, Chelonia mydas (family Cheloniidae), found in all tropical and subtropical seas and noted for its green-coloured fat.The green turtle is much valued as a source of food.

1657   R. Ligon True Hist. Barbados 4   There is a third kind, called the Green Turtle,..far excelling the other two, in wholesomnesse, and Rarenesse of taste.
1792   M. Riddell Voy. Madeira 63   Four species of turtle are found on the shores of this island—the green-turtle, the hawk's-bill,..the logger-head, and the land-tortoise.
1898   Westm. Gaz. 9 Nov. 3/1   The sea round about the West Indies is the happiest hunting-ground for green turtle.
1952   E. Hemingway Old Man & Sea (1986) 36   He loved green turtles and hawk-bills with their elegance and speed.
2005   Daily Tel. 3 Aug. 9/2   There are fewer than a million green turtles in the Caribbean today.

1657—2005(Hide quotations)

 

  greenwing   n. North American (more fully greenwing teal) the green-winged teal, Anas crecca; cf. blue-wing n. at blue adj. and n. Compounds 1b(a).

[1800   Med. Repository 3 182   Blue and green wing teal (anas querquedula).]
1813   J. Belknap Hist. New-Hampsh. (ed. 2) III. 124 (table)    Blue wing Teal, Anas discors? Green wing Teal, Anas—.
1832   W. D. Williamson Hist. Maine I. 142   Of the two Teals, the green wing is the larger; both are very fine for the table.
1895   Outing Dec. 212/1   They were soon joined by more green-wings.
1993   Outdoor Canada May 12/3   About 85 percent of the ducks here are bluewing teal, with a smattering of northern shovellers, wood ducks, ruddies and the odd greenwing teal.

1813—1993(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green woodpecker   n. a large Eurasian woodpecker, Picus viridis, which has green upperparts, a red crown, and a loud laughing call, and feeds chiefly on ants on the ground.

1668   W. Charleton Onomasticon Zoicon 86   Picus viridis..the Hickwall, Witwall, or Green-Wood-pecker.
1774   O. Goldsmith Hist. Earth V. 249   The Green Wood-spite or Wood-pecker is called the Rain-Fowl in some parts of the country.
1843   W. Yarrell Hist. Brit. Birds II. 136   The Green Woodpecker..[is] said to be vociferous when rain is impending.
1941   Ld. Alanbrooke Diary 5 July in War Diaries (2001) 169   Discovered wryneck nesting in green woodpecker nesting box.
2003   Org. Gardening Sept. 28/2   Green woodpeckers hoover up ants on the lawn.

1668—2003(Hide quotations)

 
 (c) In names of plants and fruits (often translating the scientific Latin epithet viridis). See also greengage n. 1, greenheart n., green sauce n. 2, etc.
 

  green alder   n. a shrubby alder, Alnus viridis, common in rocky or mountainous areas in north temperate regions.Several subspecies of A. viridis exist; these were formerly (and are sometimes still) treated as separate species.

1869   Amer. Naturalist 3 408   Green alder..has a range similar to that of the western birch, and attains a similar size toward the west.
1910   E. A. N. Arber Plant Life in Alpine Switzerland ix. 234   The Green Alder has no very striking peculiarities. It resembles the Alders of the plains, except that it is rather dwarfed in stature.
2007   K. Junker Gardening with Woodland Plants iv. 85   The green alder from central Europe is shrublike with tall, erect stems reminiscent of a hazel. Perfect for underplanting.

1869—2007(Hide quotations)

 

  green arrow   n.  [ < green adj. + alteration of yarrow n.] English regional (now rare) the common Eurasian yarrow, Achillea millefolium.

1875   Gardeners' Chron. 7 Aug. 161/3   Green 'arrow, Green 'arrow, you bears a white blow.
1898   H. R. Haggard in Longman's Mag. Oct. 500   I found the wildflower called Green-arrow in bloom.
1909   G. J. Drews Unfired Food 306   Yarrow is also called milfoil, green arrow, thousand leaf, carpenters grass, bloodwort, old man's pepper and soldier's woundwort.

1875—1909(Hide quotations)

 

  green ash   n. North American a North American ash tree, Fraxinus pennsylvanica of eastern and central areas.

1810   F. A. Michaux Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de l'Amérique Septentrionale I. 34   F[raxinus] concolor. Green ash (Frêne vert), nom donné par moi à cette espèce, qui n'en a aucun dans les pays où elle croît.
1882   Garden 23 Sept. 273/1   The green Ash..so called from the colour of the young shoots.
1908   N. L. Britton N. Amer. Trees 805   It has been supposed that the so-called Red ash and Green ash could be told apart by the velvety twigs of the former and the smooth ones of the latter.
2008   Montana Mag. Mar. 70/2   Cottonwoods and green ash grow in the bottoms of the larger valleys.

1810—2008(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green bean   n. any bean plant cultivated for its edible pods rather than for its seeds, esp. the French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris; the pod or beans of such a plant, esp. of the French bean (usually in plural).

1526   Grete Herball ccccxcxiii. sig. Diii   For the grene chyches ben lyke in vertue and operacyon to grene benes and the dry to the dry but not in al.
1691   J. Dunton Voy. round World I. 40   My Banquet sometimes was green Beans and Peason, Nuts, Pears, Plumbs, Apples, which were now in season.
1716   J. Mortimer Whole Art Husbandry (ed. 4) II. xiii. i. 129   In gathering green Beans for the Table, it is the best way to cut them off with a Knife.
1842   C. M. Kirkland Forest Life II. xli. 232   ‘Snaps’ are young green beans.
1874   F. Burr Field & Garden Veg. Amer. viii. 408   Early plantings..yielded pods for stringing in about ten weeks, green beans in twelve or thirteen weeks.
1969   S. G. Harrison et al. Oxf. Bk. Food Plants 36/1   The Scarlet Runner is by far the most popular green bean in Britain.
2008   N.Y. Times (National ed.) 1 Jan. d7/3   Repeated exposure to green beans..increased the babies' consumption of this vegetable whether they were breast-fed or formula-fed.

1526—2008(Hide quotations)

 

green bind   n. Obsolete = green bine n.

1805   R. W. Dickson Pract. Agric. II. 744   There is only one species of this plant in cultivation, but which has several varieties, as the red-bind, the green-bind, the white-bind.
1835   Penny Mag. Nov. 453/2   The green-bind sort, though less hardy than the preceding, is a very productive bearer.
1863   Our Children's Mag. Oct. 147   Sometimes they are distinguished by the colour of the bind or stem... There is the red bind, the green bind, the white bind, and some others.

1805—1863(Hide quotations)

 

  green bine   n. now rare a variety of the common hop, Humulus lupus, having a green bine.

1857   Rep. Sel. Comm. on Hop Duties 23   Liability of the white bine hop and of the green bine also to blight.
1889   Jrnl. Soc. Chem. Industry 31 Aug. 627/2   The White and Green Bine hops are grown in Surrey, Hants, and Worcestershire.
1983   F. R. Sanderson & H. C. Smith in G. S. Wratt & H. C. Smith Plant Breeding in N.Z. xxxiv. 289/2   A breeding programme was commenced in 1951 to try to combine the resistance of the Old English variety Fuggle (Green Bine), with the high yield and quality of Californian Late Cluster.

1857—1983(Hide quotations)

 

  greenbriar   n. North American any of various climbing plants of the genus Smilax.

c1785   S. Pears in Dict. Americanisms (1951) II. 743/1   We had not anything to live on..except..greenbrier berreys.
1839   J. J. Audubon Ornithol. Biogr. I. 302   The Green Briar, or Round-leaved Smilax,..is common along fences.
1903   G. F. Thompson Man. Angora Goat Raising 74   The greenbrier..is an enemy to goat raising; not that it is poisonous, but because of its physical character.
2008   Copley News Service (Nexis) 6 June   I have determined that I have a thorny shrub or vine that is called greenbrier.

c1785—2008(Hide quotations)

 

  green broom   n. now rare any of several types of broom (broom n. 1); esp. the common broom, Cytisus scoparius, of northwestern Europe.The identity of the plant in the early quots. is uncertain.

?1578   W. Patten Let. Entertainm. Killingwoorth 26   Euery wight with hiz blu buckeram brydelace vpon a braunch of green broom (cauz rozemary iz skant thear).
1651   D. Border Πολυϕαρμακος και Χυμιστης clxix. 107   Take tops of green Broom a reasonable quantity.
1733   P. Miller Gardeners Dict. (ed. 2)    Cytiso-genista, Common (or Green) Broom.
1895   Meehan's Monthly Nov. 203/1   Both on mountain and moorland in Great Britain the comely and modest green broom has had ‘a local habitation and a name’, from time immemorial.
1921   Amer. Naturalist 27 31   The last mentioned plant [sc. Cytisus scoparius] is also known as ‘Scotch broom’, ‘green broom’ and ‘besom’.

?1578—1921(Hide quotations)

 

  green dragon   n. either of two arums (family Araceae),  (a) the European dragon arum, Dracunculus vulgaris (also green dragon arum); cf. dragon n.1 14; (now rare);  (b) the North American plant Arisaema dracontium, which has a pale green flower; also called dragon root.

1789   W. Aiton Hortus Kewensis III. 315   Short-sheath'd Arum, or Green Dragon.
1818   A. Eaton Man. Bot. (ed. 2) 146   Arum..dracontium..green dragon.
1883   W. Robinson Eng. Flower Garden 37/1   Arum Dracontium (Green Dragon Arum) grows abundantly in the moist and swampy districts of Virginia and New England.
1939   A. H. Wood Grow them Indoors 82   Another aroid, sometimes grown in the house but more often out of doors, is the dragon arum or green-dragon (Dracunculus vulgaris).
2000   Boston Globe (Nexis) 7 Sept. g1   There are many other arisaemas that have recently been embraced by adventurous shade gardeners, including the native green dragon.

1789—2000(Hide quotations)

 

green endive   n. Obsolete any of several similar wild lettuces with bitter-tasting leaves, esp. prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola, and L. virosa.

1548   W. Turner Names of Herbes sig. D.vijv   The thyrde sorte is called in latin Lactuca syluestris, in englishe grene Endyue, the Poticaries haue longe abused thys herbe for right Endyue.
1675   Accomplish'd Lady's Delight 269   Boyl them in good Mutton-Broath, with Mace, a Faggot of sweet Herbs, Sage, Spinage, Marygold-leaves and Flowers, white or green Endive, Burrage, Bugloss, Parsley, and Sorrel.
1846   G. Pépé Mem. Gen. Pépé I. viii. 129   Excessive hunger made me eat with avidity the green endive which grows there to some height.

1548—1846(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green gram   n. the mung bean, Vigna radiata.

1813   Hansard Commons 14 Apr. 871–2 (table)    3 [measures]..of Doll and Green Gram.
1929   H. A. A. Nicholls & J. H. Holland Text-bk. Trop. Agric. (ed. 2) ii. xv. 457 (heading)    Phaseolus radiatus is the ‘mung’ or ‘green gram’ of India.
2008   L. Kaplan in C. M. du Bois et al. World of Soy i. 39   Vigna radiata, the mung bean or green gram, is well known in the West as the most important source of bean sprouts.

1813—2008(Hide quotations)

 

green fillet   n. Obsolete rare a kind of apple used for making cider.

1662   J. Beale in T. Birch Hist. Royal Soc. (1756) I. 149   White musts of divers kinds, red cheekt and red-streakt musts of several kinds, green musts, called also green fillet, and blue spotted: why, I say, we should prefer them for cider before table-fruit.
1676   Philos. Trans. (Royal Soc.) 11 587   Green Cider..made of a green fillet, as they called it, where they had other kinds of fillets. This which I commend..was a small, round, and green Apple full of black spots.

1662—1676(Hide quotations)

 

  green hawthorn   n. North American a hawthorn, Crataegus viridis, of the south-eastern United States, commonly grown in gardens as an ornamental.

1771   J. R. Forster Catal. Plants N. Amer. in tr. J. B. Bossu Trav. Louisiana II. 39   Crategus viridis..Hawthorn, green.
1832   G. Don Gen. Syst. Gardening & Bot. II. 601/1   C. viridis... Native of Carolina. Perhaps a variety of C. coccinea. Green Hawthorn.
1909   Proc. Ohio State Acad. 5 155   Crataegus viridis L. Green Hawthorn. A small tree often without thorns. Fruit persisting into the winter.
2004   J. Meyer Tree Bk. ii. 116/2   After a show of bronze, red, and gold fall foliage, the green hawthorn..develops orange-red fruits that resemble rose hips.

1771—2004(Hide quotations)

 
 

  green hellebore   n. either of two poisonous plants with green flowers, a stemless hellebore, Helleborus viridis, and Indian poke, Veratrum viride.

[1737   J. Armstrong Synopsis Hist. & Cure Venereal Dis. 325   Let a great many deep Pits be dug about their Roots, and filled with great Quantities of green Hellebore Root.]
1774   J. Hill Veg. Syst. XXIV. 12   Green Hellebore... Helleborus Viridis.
1872   H. Watts Dict. Chem. VI. 695   Helleboreïn is much more abundant in black than in green hellebore.
1917   H. C. Long Plants Poisonous to Livestock ii. 13   Two poisonous species of hellebore may on occasion be taken by livestock, though rarely—Stinking Hellebore..and Green Hellebore.
1993   S. Marshall Nest of Magpies (1994) xvii. 144   There were clumps of green hellebore, spindly crocuses, windflowers and yellow aconites.

1774—1993(Hide quotations)

 
1762   W. Hudson Flora Anglica 477   Anglis, Green Laver, or Oyster Green.
1836   J. C. Loudon Encycl. Plants (rev. ed.) 941   The green laver which, stewed with lemon juice, is so much esteemed in England, is the Ulva lactuca.
1894   R. O. Heslop Northumberland Words   Slauke, the seaweed green laver, Ulva lactuca and U. latissima.
1922   W. S. Furneaux Sea Shore 354   It [sc. Ulva latissima] is known as the Green Laver, and is used as food in districts where the true laver (Porphyra) is not to be obtained.
1998   BBC Good Food Sept. 126/4   In Wales, laver is boiled to a purée and coated with oatmeal to make laverbread. Fresh sea lettuce (green laver) is sold in some supermarkets and can be used in soups or salads.

1762—1998(Hide quotations)

 

  green milkweed   n. a North American milkweed, Asclepias (formerly Acerates) viridiflora, with green flowers.

1829   A. Eaton Man. Bot. (ed. 5) 90   [Acerates] viridiflora... Green milkweed.
1921   H. M. Hall & F. L. Long Rubber-content N. Amer. Plants vi. 39   Another species, the green milkweed (A[cerates] viridiflora), with much more copious foliage, is reported upon.
2000   Jrnl. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127 184/2   On the next summit north the group found Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed) in flower bud and A. viridiflora (green milkweed).

1829—2000(Hide quotations)